of the orient
Journal based in 2004
Issued twice a year
Table of Contents as a *.PDF file
Proclamation of the Later Jin to the Ming Dynasty. Introduction, translation from the Manchu language with commentaries by Dr T. Pang - 5
The Manchu text of the Proclamation of the Later Jin to the Ming Dynasty is kept in Paris Musée Guimet and is the earliest Manchu blockprint published ca.1623. Its Chinese version from the Peking National library was introduced by the Japanese scholar Imanishi Shunjū in 1973. The Manchu text was discovered by the author in 1996 and published in facsimile in 1998. It is the first Manchu propagandistic text in literary form aimed to convey the idea of Manchu right to receive the Mandat of Heaven for governing the Underheaven. The introduction, 19 historical episodes and conclusion contain examples of Heaven’s support of rising dynasties. All of them have moral teaching with the idea that the Ming dynasty has lost the Mandat of Heaven and the small Manchu state and its leader Nurhaci receive Heaven’s benevolence and support. We present the first Russian translation from Manchu of the Proclamation of the Later Jin to the Ming Dynasty with commentary and translation of certain parts of the Chinese version which differ from the Manchu text.
Dr J. Klaproth. Qi qiao tu hebi (Composing pictures from seven pieces). Introduction and publication by Dr H. Walravens - 21
From the beginning
Tangram is a Chinese puzzle that consists of seven parts which are made by cutting up a square. While the Chinese name is qiqiao (see below), the European names were casse-tete chinois, Kopfzerbrecher, Chinesisches Sinnspiel, etc. The origin of the name tangram is not quite clear. It seems that it is derived from Sam Lloyd's The Eighth Book of Tan (1903) in which he propagates the puzzle but covers up the origin by stating the Chinese Li Hung Chang [!] had confirmed Pythagoras' axiom by means of this puzzle, thousand of years ago... It seems that tangram is supposed to mean “graphics of Tan”…
Dr L. Tugusheva. Fragments of the Early Medieval Turkic Books of Omens from St.-Petersburg Branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS - 37
This article represents the first publication of two fragments of early medieval Turkic books of omens. This type of literary works is rarely found among the ancient writings from Eastern Turkestan, which are, for the greater part, works of the religious content. Books of omens are outstanding thanks to the fact that they, as well as the official documents, quite often reflect the real features of the mode of life and are defined as “Folk-Literature”.
A. Ivanov. “The fear of the Lord of those who walk in right ways” (towards the question of origin and exact meaning of Zhou categories “de” 德 and “weiyi” 威儀). Part I. The category “de” 德. - 47
Intrinsically linked to each other the categories de 德 and weiyi 威儀 are the key concepts of the Zhou China religious worldview. The aim of this article is to consider the actual cultural and historical context of their origin and to establish their exact primary meanings. The first part of the article is devoted to the category de 德.
The category in question reveals evident indications of ethical imperative (in the Bible sense of this concept) just in the semantics of the initial ideography of its designation. Analysis of the character de (德) usage in Yin oracle bone inscriptions provides evidence that in a predicative function it has the meaning “to go (to walk) in right ways”, but in a nominal function it signifies “going (walking) in right ways” or immediately the “right ways” themselves. These are the sole meanings, in which the character de 德 is used in Yin epigraphy. Thus, by the opinion of the author, the most significant category of the Zhou religious worldview has without doubt Yin origin.
E. Revunenkova. Krusenstern's Malay Manuscript “Sulalat-us-salatin”, its cultural and historical value (II) - 78
In the second part of E.V. Revunenkova’s paper Krusenstern’s Malay Manuscript “Sulalat-us-Salatin”, its cultural and historical value” the author reveals different aspects of these problems. She analyses different sources of it: myths, fairy tales, legends, real events of antiquity and Middle Ages, literature — both those of Malayo-Indonesian origin and those borrowed from other traditions, mostly from India and the Muslim Near East. The transformation of borrowings in Malaya is most attentively retraced. Special consideration is given to the influence of folk-lore in the domains of topic and style. The author expresses her opinion about the function of Sulalat-us-Salatin in mediaeval Malaya and its outstanding importance for the subsequent development of the Malay culture — up to our days.
A. Sokolov. Emishi-ezo-ainu. Ainu in the Japanese territoru in the middle age and Kinsei (Tsugaru, Shimokita [Honshu] and Matsumae Hokkaido]) - 97
The article briefly reviews formation of the Ainu people that is dated by at least the 12/13th century. Hokkaido is believed to be the original territory of Ainu.
Hokkaido population was not a single ethnic community approximately until the 12th century. From the 12th century Hokkaido aboriginal population ezo, having undergone the strong Far East cultural influence, started to acquire the Ainu appearance. Author of this article regards concepts of emishi, ezo, ainu in detail.
Archaeological materials from Hokkaido and North-East Tohoku area show, that the Ainu and Japanese lived together in this territory in the age of Kinsei. This information is proved by Japanese written sources dated by the 17th and 18th centuries. In the light of studying Ainu and Japanese cultural relationship, these materials have an important meaning.
D. Tsolin. Literature Forms of the Biblical Story of the Creation (Gen. 1:1–2:3) and Its Rethoric Interpretation in Targumim - 110
This article is dedicated to the problem of correlation between ancient Hebrew poetry and its later rethorical interpretation in targums — Aramaic translations of the Pentateuch. We have a very interesting fact of two literary traditions in one ancient writing: refined Hebrew poetry and its liturgical interpretation. Between these two traditions lies a large period of time — more 1000 years — and different literary, linguistic and historical processes influenced on forming targumic interpretation of the original Hebrew poetry. Besides, Aramaic translations became new literary form, they made inuque genre, combining elements of exegetics, narrative insertions (so called Haggadoth) and Hebrew poetry in the period of Later Antiquity and Early Middle Ages. At that the targumim were made on the base of the Pentateuch and in imitation of its literary forms. The combination of these two poetic traditions is a subject of investigation of the article.
Dr A. Chetverukhin. A Material for Phono-Morphological Reconstruction of a Number of Egyptian Syntactic Morphemes. Prepositions “(j)m, (j)n, (j)r” and Their Derivatives - 119
It is this article which lies in the base of some earlier publications by the author dealing with morpho-phonological reconstructions of a number of both auxiliary — and root — morphemes. It has been left aside as a rough copy for years. This article is the first one from the planned series entitled The material of phono-morphological reconstruction of a file of Egyptian auxiliary morphemes. First of all we mean Egyptian prepositions j(m), j(n), j(r) and formations deriving from these prepositions.
The purpose of the author is a plausible phonetic reconstruction of these forms, desirable maximally as early as possible. Ideally, we try to achieve reconstruction of their phonetic appearance which could have been in Old Egyptian. Yet we distinctly realize that any reconstruction of that far-off period will inevitably bear conditional character or, more exact, — a phonologically generalized one.
In this article we present graphical material pertinent to above-mentioned forms. Even if an Egyptologist doesn’t know Russian, he would realize the essence of the matter, orientating himself to the table inserted, literature, forms, examples and reconstructions. If circumstances allow, the reader will learn, in particular, why exactly Old Egyptian preposition jm in Coptic transformed into Mmo/w=, n-, as well as something else, which either was not considered till now, or simply wasn’t undertaken, for it was not known how to approach an explanation of either (if not one, then the other) phenomenon in such “popular” sphere, as Egyptian preposition and formations derived from it. Against a background of everlasting attempts of reconstruction of phonetic appearance of verbal forms derived from nouns, this may seem small points. But before having big ideas about systematic reconstruction (be it either sphere of verbs or noun), one ought to begin exactly with “small points”, at least, such is the author’s opinion.
Of course, graphic material can be exhausted in no way, as well as methods of its interpretation. If desirable, it would be possible to discover either the additional material, or alternative ways for its interpretation. The author hopes however that this modest contribution, even in that form in which it is given in the present work, would not be missing in vain, and impart an impulse to future investigations.
It must be stressed that the very subject of the so-called “Egyptian vocalization” is not exhausted by now at all, and hardly would be exhausted in a visible future.
Dr I. Kaneva. Sentences with general questions in Sumerian - 140
In Sumerian language sentences with general questions haven’t got means of expression of interrogation which exist in other languages — intonation, lexis, morphology, syntax. The only way to emphasize a word that is the aim of interrogation seems to be its framing with the enclitic verbal copula which had lost its predicative meaning (occurs occasionally).
No traces of intonation can be found in writing. Particles “yes” and “no” don’t appear in texts. One can determine a sentence with general question only basing upon the context.
Dr M. Kemper. Tekke takeovers and hagiographical writings, 15th to 20th Centuries: Hajji Bektash, Hajjim Sultan, Demir Baba and Qaraja Ahmed - 144
It is estimated that some ten to fifteen percent of the Muslim population of Turkey and a considerable part of the Turks living in Bulgaria and other Balkan countries regard themselves as linked to Alevi tradition. Yet it is hard to clearly define “Alevism” (Turk. Alevilik). In one respect, it stands for a broad complex of various religious rituals and beliefs that emerged in the tribal milieus of Anatolia and Rumelia. These beliefs have been preserved by holy families (ocate) of dedes, (Grandfathers) who function as spiritual leaders of their village communities; they claim descent from 'Ali ibn Abi Talib and the Shi'i Imams, and their knowledge is passed down from father to son, that is, by blood lineage. In the context of the 16th century wars with the Shi'i Iran, the Ottoman empire persecuted Anatolian tribes with Alevi (Qizilbash) traditions; also, Sunni pogroms and attacks against Alevis have occurred in the Turkish Republic as well. As a a result, Alevis often interpret their past as a continuing history of martyrdom.
К. Voyenets. “The Aşţādhyāyī”, an ancient Indian grammar (Dialog between different generations of the Indian linguistic tradition) - 168
This paper discusses a major linguo-didactic complex of the Aşţādhyāyī (the 6th-4th centuries B.C.) and its influence on the later literary works, especially the tradition of medieval Indian commentary.
HISTORY AND HISTORIOGRAPHY
Dr I. Alimov. “Bei meng suo yan” by Sun Guang-xian (895?—968): “biji” collection, its author and personages - 180
Sun Guang-xian is rightly considered to be a prominent scholar and a literary man — in the Song dynastic history he is called a profound connoisseur of canonical and historical texts, a man of immense learning, who sought after new knowledge. Sun Guang-xian left a great number of works in prose and poetry, he was a recognized master of verses in the genre of ci, and is known for his original style. Sun Guang-xian was a talented historian as well. His broad erudition, large book collection, unwearying thirst for knowledge — all this was a base for his numerous works. It is well known that a number of works by Sun Guang-xian was lost during the Song dynasty and only the titles have survived like: Xü tong li (續通歷 Continuation of the General Calendar), Ju zhai ji (橘齋集Collection from the Ju zhai cabinet), Jing tai ji (荊臺集 Collection from the Jing Terraces) and others. The present article describes his collection of biji Bei meng suo yan (北夢瑣言Short Sayings from Beimeng). One glance at the contents of the collection contemporary edition is enough to be sure that Bei meng suo yan describes the time of the Tang and the Five dynasties — the majority of the episodes refer to the end of the Tang, as well as to the Late Liang, the Late Tang and the Late Jin dynasties. Short Sayings from Beimeng is quite an extensive collection of biji, mainly anecdotal works written in the style of unofficial historiography; the main topics of the collection are typical and can be singled out quite easily. For the most part these are episodes from the lives of members of the various ruling families; there is also information on the Tang emperors and the emperors’ relations. The other sketches tell various details of events that happened at the end of the Tang Dynasty or during the Five Dynasties; they significantly broaden our knowledge about this historical period or give an interpretation of certain events which differs from the official version. Furthermore, Bei meng suo yan includes stories about the magical world and supernatural creatures such as souls of the dead, saints and immortals, which are seeking vengeance etc., but these texts are not numerous and are concentrated mainly in the first four juans of additions. The text of Bei meng suo yan is full of names and some material is really unique, thus we consider essential in addition to this article give a list of the characters. It contains the names of heroes/historical persons mentioned in this collection both transcription in pinyin and in Chinese characters (left out were only obviously unidentified names like “a certain Zhang”, “man of letters Liu” etc., and also people whose identity is difficult to establish and requires additional comparative research such as Shilang Cui, Langzhong Wang etc.); the numbers indicate the sketches in Bei meng suo yan where the person is mentioned, regardless of his role in this story.
Dr O. Akimushkin. The Painter Qasim ibn ‘Ali and the Manuscipt of “Ahsan al-Kibar” (National Library of Russia, Dorn 312) - 202
The paper deals with the copy of the work by Muhammad al-‘Alavi al-Viramini Ahsan al-Kibar (The Best of the Great Ones) that arrived to the National Library of Russia in 1828, among 166 manuscripts from Ardabil. Nowadays it is preserved as Ms. Dorn 312. The manuscript contains 39 miniature paintings of superb quality.
According to the colophon (fol. 508a), the copy was transcribed on 4 Rabi‘ I 927/12 February 1521 by the scribe of the royal domain (katib i khassa yi sharifa) named Khizr-shah, at the time when he was 65 years of age. The same scribe executed another copy of this work which was found in the Ardabil collection in Ramazan 948/December 1541 and is now preserved in the Malek Library in Tehran (No. 4159).
In 1954, M.M. Dyakonov and Yu.S. Dashevsky wrote an article dedicated exclusively to this copy (Late Miniatures by Qasim ‘Ali in a Manuscript from the State Public Library in Leningrad — IAN Tadzh SSR, No. 5, 1954, pp. 29–41). This study gives a detailed analysis of the Ms. Dorn 312 and its paintings. On the basis of their reading of the ornamental inscription in the painting on fol. 373b, they concluded that this painting, as well as all other paintings in the manuscript, was done by the famous Herati artist Qasim b. ‘Ali. The inscription written in a good thulth and muhaqqaq style of handwriting is dated Dhu al-Hijja 932/September 1526. The signing formula is ‘ala yad al-‘abd al-za‘if Qasim b. ‘Ali. This conclusion was accepted by all specialists including I.S. Schtoukine (Qasim Ibn ‘Ali et ses peintures dans le Ahsan al-Kibar).
In 1992, Abolala Soudavar published a catalogue of his own collection (Art of the Persian Courts, N-Y, 1992). On p. 177 he placed a painting from the Nizami’s poem Haft Paykar that contains the episode of Bahram Gur visiting the Maghribi princess in the turquoise pavilion. Due to the fact that the cartouches of the architectural decor contain the name of the maker, Qasim b. ‘Ali, A. Soudavar related this painting to the Sistani (sic!) school of the 16th century and considered it a work by Qasim b. ‘Ali. This inscription written in as much elegant thulth and muhaqqaq as those that can be seen on fol. 373b in the MS Dorn 312, contains the signing formula: kataba-hu al-‘abd al-faqir Qasim b. ‘Ali. Yet, the painting is done by an artist belonging to the Shirazi school of the first third of the 16 century, and one cannot possibly relate it to the Herati artist Qasim b. ‘Ali.
Conclusion: the signing formulas in the cartouches on fol. 373b in the Ms. Dorn 312 (‘ala yad al-‘abd al-za‘if) and in the painting from the Haft Paykar (kataba-hu al-‘abd al-faqir) point out that these inscriptions were made by a master-calligrapher. Similar signing formulas were not in use among the miniature painters in the 15th–16th centuries. The formula ‘amala al-‘abd would have been used instead. For example, one can refer to the original signature of Behzad in the copy of Sa‘di’s Bustan preserved in the Egyptian National Library in Cairo. It is known that a calligrapher Qasim b. ‘Ali b. Husayn al-Husayni was active in Tabriz in the 20s–30s of the 16th century.
Then one can suppose that the superb paintings in the copy of the Ahsan al-Kibar (Ms. Dorn 312) were made by the artist Qasim b. ‘Ali. Yet, the signature in the painting on fol. 373b belongs to his namesake calligrapher rather than to himself.
Dr A. Strelkov. New source for studying Tantra Kālacakra — The Sanskrit work «Śrī kālacakra laghu tantra rāja hŗidaya» in the Tibetan translation - 209
The paper presents the Tibetan text The heart (essence) of the king of tantra — brief [tantra] Splendid Circle of Time (Dpal dus kyi ‘khor lo bsdus pa’i rgyud kyi rgyal po’i snying po). I found it in the typography of famous Tibetan monastery Sku ‘bum byams pa gling (northeastern Tibet)) in April 2006. This apocryphal (for all versions of the Tibetan Canon) text is the translation of Sanskrit text Śrī kālacakra laghu tantra rāja hŗidaya. As well as his Sanskrit original (which, most likely, has not existence now) this Tibetan translation is unknown text for science.
Śrī Kālacakra laghu tantra rāja hŗidaya (The heart of the brief tantra) is the brief account of actual basic text of Kālacakra system — Śrī kālacakra nāma tantra rāja (The brief tantra). The five chapters of The heart of the brief tantra (179 verses: 5 verses (chapter 1), 30 verses (chapter 2), 22 verses (chapter 3), 82 verses (chapter 4), 40 verses (chapter 5)) deals with the same themes that five Chapters of his source The brief tantra (1047 verses: 169 verses (chapter 1), 180 verses (chapter 2), 203 verses (chapter 3), 234 verses (chapter 4), 261 verses (chapter 5)): chapter 1 describes cosmology (loka dhātu); chapter 2 considers individual (adhyātma); chapter 3 depicts rites of initiation (abhişeka); chapter 4 contains instructions on Tantric practice (sādhana); chapter 5 is devoted to result of the Tantrc path — wisdom (jñāna). We can see that the main theme of Heart of the brief tantra is sādhana.
Śrī Kālacakra laghu tantra rāja hŗidaya is anonymous work. The colophon of Tibetan text of Śrī Kālacakra laghu tantra rāja hŗidaya says that Indian scholar Śrī Bhadrabodhi and Tibetan translator Gyi tsho ban dhe zla ba’i ‘od zer translated this Sanskrit work. Our analysis shows that this translation was created in the second half ore the end of the 11th century.
The Tibetan translation of Śrī Kālacakra laghu tantra rāja hŗidaya during few centuries was lost in Tibet. Famous Tibetan scholar Klong Rdol bla ma Ngags dbang blo bzang (1719–1795) found it in one tumbledown Buddhist Stupa in Central Tibet and offered this text to Paņ chen bla ma Blo bzang dpal ldan ye shes (1738–1780) which after reading it declared that this text was created by king of Shambhala ‘Jam dpal grags pa and for this time has a great impotence in this sacred country. The founder (1760) of the Kālacakra faculty in monastery Sku ‘bum byams pa gling Che shos rin po che Ngag dbang shad sgrub bstan ba’i nyi ma made (second half of the 18th c.) a new xylographical edition of this text in typography of Sku ‘bum byams pa gling. Up to the present time this typography prints this xylograph. The heart of the brief tantra is a basic liturgical text of the Kālacakra faculty in monastery Sku ‘bum byams pa gling.
This xylograph has 79 lists (269/96 mm) and contains Tibetan translation of Śrī Kālacakra laghu tantra rāja hŗidaya (l. 1a–75a) and Tibetan colophon to this translation (l. 75a–75b); praying of Klong Rdol bla ma Ngags dbang blo bzang (l. 75b–76b); text which comments on the history of finding it by Klong Rdol bla ma (l. 76b–77a); praying of Che shos rin po che Ngag dbang shad sgrub bstan ba’i nyi ma (l. 77a–78b) and his epilogue to this xylographical edition (l. 78b–79a).
Tibetan translation of Sanskrit text Śrī Kālacakra laghu tantra rāja hŗidaya is a new valuable source for scientific studying Kālacakra tantra. Investigation of this Indo-Tibetan work has a great significance for further understanding this vary impotent and intricate Buddhist system.
Dr B. Norik . Qati‘i Haravi and His Literary Anthology of Poets during the Emperor Jahangir - 220
The article is dedicated to one of the less studied literary anthologies (tadhkira) written by a professional paper-cutter (qata‘) Qati‘i Haravi in the first three decades of the 18th century in India (Agra). This is the third part of the greater work called Majma‘ al-shu‘ara-yi Jahangirshahi (the first and the second parts are not survived). In this article the author tried to reproduce the biography of Qati‘i basing on his anthology and to give some examples of his poetry. The Qati‘i’s anthology is very useful during the studying of the literary relations between Iran, Mawarannahr and India because many men of letters who immigrated to India form Iran and Mawarannahr are mentioned there.
Dr I. Katkova. Muslim Misticism in Western Sumatra (Oral and Written Tradition) - 235
The present article deals with the Islamic manuscripts tradition in the region of Western Sumatra in Indonesia. During my field research work in the land of Minangkabau (Western part of Sumatra, Padang) in May, 2006 I had an opportunity to look at some collections of Malay Islamic and Sufi manuscripts written in Arab and Arabic Malay (Jawi), mainly dated back to the 18th century. That is exactly a period of time of active Muslim penetration to this region by two branches of Sufi brotherhoods, namely Shattariyah and Naqshbandiyah. Till nowadays this region is under the religious influence of mostly the Sufi brotherhood (tariqah) Shattariyah. In the course of my research work I have visited several Shattariyah surau or centers for Islamic studies guided by Sufi sheihs (minang. buya), namely surau Paseban, Surau Baru, Nurul Huda and Lubuk Ipuh in Ulakan). Besides being the centers of Islamic and Sufi education, all surau are the so-called scriptorium or the places of preservation of Islamic manuscripts. One of them is still continuing the tradition of copying on Jawi which is almost on the edge of vanishing. The article narrates about one of the representatives of this tradition nowadays, Imam Maulana Abdulmunaf Amin al-Khatib (b. 1922), his life and activity as a Sufi writer and copyist. Moreover, it describes some aspects of Islamic historical tradition, the local cult of Muslim “saints” (awliya) and mostly modern situation, namely the role of surau in conservation of the collections of manuscripts and preserving the tradition of writing on Jawi.
A. Fedorin. On the study of the history of canonical and historical texts’ xylography in Vietnam - 245
The craft of engraving wood plates and making prints (xylography) appeared not later than in the 11th century. In the 15th century this craft was already well developed, in the 18th it became wide spread. With its peak in the 19th century, in the 20th century it vanished. This way of making copies of historical and canonical confucianistic texts appeared not later than in the end of the Chan dynasty’s rule (1255–1400), and developed along with the consolidation of confucianism in the country, as well as with the establishment of the system of holding state official positions on the basis of a contsest. Almost from the very beginning xylographs were the responsibility of both the state and craftspeople. The future texts were prepared by corresponding state institutions under the supervision of high authorities, but engraving wood plates and making prints were carried out by particular craftsmen communities, which could also print and sell extra copies in order to get profit. In the beginning of the XIX century, when the Nguyen dynasty (1802–1945) came to power, printing such texts fully became the prerogative of private individuals, although under the control of the state. During the time of the rule of the emperor Ming-mang (1820–1840), the monopoly on preparing texts of historical chronicals and confucianistic canons returned to the state. Still this kind of literature remained available to readers and its turnover on the market was not prevented.
COLLECTIONS AND ARCHIVES
I. Zaitsev. Arabic, Persian and Turkic Manuscripts in Moscow - 252
The author describes the main oriental Mss’ collections in Moscow libraries, museums and archives. The article gives an information on Arabic, Persian and Turkic manuscripts including bibliografical references, collections’ history and descriptions of the most interesting manuscripts.
Scholarly Collaboration between Sain-Petersburg and Moscow Sinologists. Letters of P.Ye. Skachkov to V.S. Myasnikov (1957–1959). Published by Dr V. Myasnikov - 279
Publication of 13 letters of the Leningrad (now Saint-Petersburg) sinologist Piotr Yemelianovich Skaschkov to Vladimir Stepanovich Myasnikov, who lived in Moscow, are a precious illustration of scientific cooperation between scholars and it shows the influence of Leningrad Oriental school on the formation of Moscow sinologists. Academician V.M. Alexeev read lectures at the Moscow Institute of Oriental studies, and many of his former students after graduation from the Leningrad State university moved to Moscow to work in the academic institutions. After return from political exile in 1956 P.Ye. Skachkov started his work in the Moscow Institute of Oriental studies, but then moved to Leningrad from where he was corresponding with his Moscow colleagues. The letters are arranged to several topics like about his work, the topics of the studies, relations between colleagues, how to plan a scientific trip to China. The letters reviele friendly and cooperative relations between older and younger generations of Russian orientalists, as well as a wish to keep and develop academic tradition of Russian sinology.
RESTORATION AND KEEPING
N.V. Stepanova, L.I. Kryakina, J.G. Archakova, I.N. Kuleshova. The experience of research and restoration of the Chinese export paintings on Tetrapanax papyriferum (pith paper) from the fine art collection of the Saint-Petersburg Branch of the Institute for Oriental Research, Russian Academy of Science - 289
The article deels with experience of research, conservation, history and identification a very unusual material for the painting (pith of tree Tetrapanax papyriferum, family Aralieceae Juss) or “pith-paper”. The work was carried on in the conservation studio of the Saint-Petersburg Branch of the Institute for Oriental Research, Russian Academy of Science, which keeps several Chinese export pith albums of XIXth century. The article is illustrated by photos displaying the process and method of the painting’s conservation and the photos of the tree’s structure ESM (electronic scanning microscopy).
Dr I. Kulganek. Conference in memory of A. Dordjiev - 298
Dr T. Yermakova. Annual Conference at the Saint-Petersburg Branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS - 301
Dr Z. Yusupova. Scholarly meeting in memory of M.B. Rudenko (1926-1976) - 302
Russian-Chinese Academic Contacts (by Dr T. Ermakova) - 303
Boikova Ye. V. Bibliography of Russian Works in Mongolian Studies in 1946-2000 (by T. Yusupova) - 305
Lev Serafimovich Savitzky (1932-2007) - 308
Ordihan Jasmovich Jalilov (1932-2007) - 310