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Livshits V.A. A Sogdian precursor of Omar Khayyam in Transoxiana // Iran and Caucasus. Research Papers from the Caucasian Centre for Iranian Studies. Vol. 8.1. London—Boston, 2004. P. 15-18.


By late 60's of the 6th century the Turkic Kaganate had made its way into the system of political and economic relations of the major states of the time: Byzantium, the Sasanian Iran, China. The headquarters of the West-Turkic Kaganate was in Suyab (on the river Chu). Having become the political leader in Central Asia and taken control of the trade along the Great Silk Road, the Turkic Kagans established close relations with the Sogdians. The political and economic links with Sogd had determined the specific character of the villages and cities in Transoxania. The written sources and the archaeological evidence attest to the Sogdians having been scattered along the Silk Road, maintaining active contacts with the Turks. As a result of this intensive interrelations between Sogdians and the Turks during the 6th-early 9th centuries the mentioned area has become the home for the formation of an original cultural complex, which can be rightly designated as a Turkic-Sogdian symbiosis…

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