of the Orient
Journal based in 2004
Issued twice a year
Table of Contents and final parts (in Russian) as a *.PDF file
I.F. Popova. I.A. Orbeli at the Leningrad Branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences of the USSR — 5
March 8, 2012, marks the 125th anniversary of Academician Iosif (Joseph) Abgarovich Orbeli (1887-1961), a renowned Orientalist who specialized in medieval history of Southern Caucasus and was one of the most significant figures in the history of Oriental Studies in Leningrad. From 1934 to 1951 he administered the State Hermitage Museum, and in 1956 he became the founder and first head of Leningrad Branch of the Institute for Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Thanks to his efforts the St. Petersburg/Leningrad classical tradition of Oriental studies retained its position in the Soviet age.
J.S. Musayelyan. I.A. Orbeli and Kurdish Philology — 15
Kurdish philology occupied an important part in the scholarly life of Academician I.A. Orbeli (1887-1961). His interest in the Kurds originated in 1911 in Moks (Turkey) where he was sent by the Russian Academy to collect data on Armenian dialects. As a result of that work, I.A. Orbeli compiled a big dictionary of the Moksa dialect of the Kurdish language and described its lexical, phonetic and grammatical characteristics. He paid great attention to the study of Kurdish culture, borrowings and interconnections of literary subjects between East and West. During all his life I.A. Orbeli returned in his lectures and articles to the poem by Ahmed Hani Mam and Zin, the 17th century monument of the classical Kurdish literature. The article above deals with the teaching activities of I.A. Orbeli at the Department of Oriental Languages of the Saint-Petersburg University, his work on the Kurdish alphabet, as well as with other aspects of his Kurdish studies.
A Tang Dynasty Political Treatise from Dunhuang. Introduction and Translation from the Chinese Language by I.F. Popova — 22
The paper presents a study, a Russian translation and a commentary on the manuscript of the Pelliot Collection of the Bibliotheque nationale de France bearing the pressmark P.5523. In 1937, the outstanding Chinese scholar Wang Zhong-min (1903-1975) tentatively identified the work as a family admonition of the Tang Emperor Gao-zong (650-683) entitled “Heavenly Instructions” (Tian xun) that has long been considered lost. From this apparently large work only four chapters (pian) survive to our days - from the 20th to the 23rd chapter; with chapters 20 and 23 incomplete. Chapter 20 is devoted to virtuous conduct of the rulers towards their families. Chapter 21 entitled “The Genuine Rectitude” (Zhen zheng) says that the essence of true rectitude manifests in different ways in the conduct of the ruler, the official and the ordinary man. Chapter 22 “The Pure Caution” (Qing shen) is devoted to the principal moral qualities of the official, i.e. to unselfishness or disinterestedness. Chapter 23 “To Look into Responses” (Zheng gan) has come down to us incomplete. It states that the monarch’s actions cause immediate response of natural forces. The Tian xun has a stylistic, categorical and genre affinity to emperors’ instructions of the early Tang period.
Documents from Khara-Khoto concerning a Loan of Grain. Introduction and Translation from the Tangut Language by E.I. Kychanov — 38
This is a publication of three Tangut documents concerning a loan of grain. The grain was borrowed late spring or early summer. The payment was due the next autumn. The interest was 50%. In case of payment delay the sum to be returned was doubled.
Arakawa Shintaro. On the Draft of a Tangut “Stone Launcher” Preserved in the Oriental Manuscripts Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences — 44
A unique Tangut manuscript (Tang. 46 inv. No. 156(2006), st. inv. No. 5217) is preserved in the Oriental Manuscripts Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences. In previous works, it has been regarded as the schema of musical instrument. The author translates the whole text and concludes that the manuscript is the draft of a Pao 砲 (stone launcher, sling).
Saman kûwaran-i bithe (The Shaman Court). Introduction and Translation from the Manchu Language by T.A. Pang — 52
Saman kûwaran-i bithe is a unique Manchu manuscript from the collection of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, RAS. It consists of several shaman prayers which were chanted by Sibe shamans. Most of them are prayers to the helping spirits of the shaman, several of them are descriptions of shamans’ trips to the Underworld during the healing ceremony. The manuscript was written in the 70s of the 19th century and is one of the early written texts of the Tungus-Manchu shamanism. The present article is the first publication of a Russian translation of this Manchu text.
O.M. Chunakova. Parthian Personal Names: Semo-Syntactical Structure — 65
The examination of Parthian names is important for Indo-Iranian and typological studies. The paper concerns the interpretation of the Parthian personal names collected by V.A. Livshits in his new monograph entitled Parthian Onomastics.
Translation of any old Iranian anthroponyms is difficult as we do not know the exact syntactical connections between components in archaic onomastic compounds and as components of archaic names were simply poetical lexemes and epithets and it is impossible to see their semantic mapping. That is why one and the same Parthian name can have different translations.
The system of Parthian personal names to a great extent agrees with that of the other Indo- Iranian languages, because the original types of anthroponyms are similar. In the paper the Parthian names are classified in accordance with their semo-syntactical structure to avoid including the same name in different categories. Single-stem full names, two-stem full names which are possessive and determinative compounds, single-stem short names and single- and two-stem hypocoristics inherited from Indo-Iranian can be discovered among the Parthian anthroponyms. There are some other categories of the Parthian names: theophoric “dummy-dvandvas”, inverted forms, patronymics and women’s names.
A.L. Khosroyev. On Some Obscure Terms in the “Tractatus Tripartitus” (Nag Hammadi Codex I. 5: 109.21-110.22) — 75
The article deals with a passage from a Gnostic (Valentinian) treatise. Using vast comparative material the author attempts to demonstrate that Coptic compound ϩΝΜΝΤΟΡГАΝΟΝ* (110. 16-17) means “arts of logic” and the phrase ϩΝЄАϪ <...> ϨЇ MNTΡЄQMMЄ* (*we are sorry for incorrect rendition of Koptic letters due to technical limitations) (110. 17-18) corresponds to the Greek δόξαι και σοφιστική (τέχνη), i.e. “opinions and sophistry”.
Z.A. Yusupova. Literary Monuments as a Source for Studying the Kurdish Language: The “Divan” by Rencuri (Mela ‘Umer Zengine) — 96
The article being a part of a larger study in the language of the “Divan” by Rencuri focuses on a morphological description of the language of the above literary source in comparison with the previously studied “Divan” by Vali-Devana. The morphological description is based on the critical text of the “Divan” published in 1983 by Muhammad Ali Karadahi in Baghdad. As a result of the linguistic analysis no considerable grammatical differences have been revealed between the two sources. This fact leads to the conclusion that the poetic form of the Gorani dialect at the time followed set linguistic norms, while some peculiar features of the “Divan” by Rencuri, in the opinion of the author, reflect the influence of the poet’s native dialect, namely, the Zengine (a variety of Gorani).
J.S. Musayelyan. A Mid-19th Century Kurdish Manuscript from the Personalia Archive of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts — 115
The manuscript titled “A Kurdish-French Conversational Book (Kurdish Dialogues)”, from the collection of A.D. Jaba, a Russian scholar and consul in Erzerum (Turkey), dated 1880, was presented to the Leningrad Branch of the Institute for Oriental Studies May 1952 by Prof. V.F. Minorski. The authors of the dialogues in the book are Mela Mahmud Bayazidi, a 19th century Kurdish scholar, and two unknown Kurdish poets. The article addresses the history and origin of the manuscript as well as the subjects reflected in it; such as customs (marital and burial rites, birth of a child), traditional occupations (agriculture, cattle-breeding and crafts), as well as plays and entertainments. The article provides data about Kurdish schools, book stalls, scribal trade, Kurds’ participation in military campaigns, Armenian-Kurdish relationship etc. The monument is a valuable source for studying Kurdish ethnography, culture and language of the time.
Y.A. Ioannesyan. The “Divine Creative Principle” in Abrahamic Religions — 133
The article addresses the issue of the parallels existing between the concepts of the “Divine creative principle” in the so-called Abrahamic religions and certain religious and philosophic teachings. A comparison of the related notions and vocabulary used to denote these ideas in the Old Testament, Aramaic Targums, the Philonian school, the New Testament, by Moslem, including Shaykhi, thinkers, and in the Baha’i religion leads the author to the conclusion that there exists a certain similarity in how this notion is expressed in the above teachings. All of them acknowledge the Divine Word, Will or Command as the Creative Principle, the Active Force and Instrument in Divine creation. Apart from that, a linguistic (etymological) parallelism can also be traced between the terms employed by certain religious teachings which are derived from related Semitic roots.
Vladimir Shelestin. The Parity Treaties of Kizzuwatna — 156
This paper presents a new edition of the parity treaties of Kizzuwatnean kings Išputahšu, Paddatiššu, Eheya and Pilliya concluded with Hittite kings Telepinu, Alluwamna, Tahurwaili and Zidanta II and with Idrimi, the king of Alalah. It is the earliest known tradition of bilateral treaties (as distinct from pairs of unilateral treaties) in the world.
The edition contains a transliteration and Russian translation of and a historical commentary on each treaty. The commentary reflects the new discoveries of more ancient international treaties, whose stipulations are compared with those of the parity treaties of the kings of Kizzuwatna.
Wei Ying-chun. On Дх-234 Fragment from the Russian Dunhuang Collection (Translation from the Chinese Language by I.F. Popova) — 183
The paper presents a study of the previously unidentified document Дх-234 of the Dunhuang collection of the Institute for Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences. Considering the content and the external state of the fragment and comparing it with the travel notes of the Chinese pilgrims to India of the period of Liuchao and Tang, the writer comes to the conclusion that the fragment contains a the part of the work Zhong Tianzhu guo xing ji 中天竺國行記 (Travel Notes the Kingdoms of Central India) by Chinese diplomatist Wang Xuan-ce 王玄策.
HISTORY AND HISTORIOGRAPHY
O.P. Scheglova. Booksellers’ Role in the Development of Lithographic Book-Printing (19th - First Decade of 20th Century) — 195
Booksellers played a determining role in the lithographic book-printing of Iran, India and Central Asia in the 19th - first decade of the 20th centuriy. This conclusion is supported by the fact that the majority of printed books in the above area were ordered by booksellers and the distribution of books in the Moslem world was carried out by them.
D.G. Kukeev. On Some Trends in Modern Historiography of the Zhungar Khanate — 210
The article analyses the trends of the Kazakh, Chinese and Japanese historical studies concerning the history of the Zhungar Khanate (1635-1758). The author tries to reveal specific features of various historical concepts. The article presents concepts under discussion and new methods for the reconstruction of the Zungar Khanate historical events, which were developed by the scholars from the above-mentioned countries.
M.A. Musaev, Sh.Sh. Shikhaliev. Saintly Miracles of the Saints in Sufi Arabic-Language Biographical Works of the Dagestanee Shaykhs from the Beginning of the 20th Century — 218
At the beginning of the 20th century Sharafuddin al-Kikuni, Shu'ayb al-Bagini and Hasan al-Qahi wrote biographies of Naqshbandi Sufi shaykhs, including the Dagestanian ones. In their works the authors describe numerous examples of miracles which are designated by the term karamat. In this article examples of the shaykhs’ miracles described by the authors of the works are given and categorized. Theoretical views of the Sufis on the nature of karamats are considered as well.
Pavel Teptyuk. “The Legal Maqāma” of al-‘Abbās (Manuscript B 66, IOM RAS — 233
This article presents the Arabic text and Russian translation of “The Legal Maqāma” from the unstudied maqāmāt collection by a certain al-‘Abbās (the 16th century). Two manuscripts were used for the present publication: B 66, at the Saint-Petersburg Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and N.F.66, at the Austrian National Library (Vienna).
A.M. Kabanoff. The Impact of Chinese Culture on Medieval Japan: Zen Buddhist Poetry — 241
The article deals with Chinese-language Zen poetry known as the literature of the Five Mountains that has developed in Japan under the strong influence of Chinese Literary tradition. Using the data of the Chinese-language Japanese poetry the author highlights the influence of Chinese culture on Japanese literature.
COLLECTIONS AND ARCHIVES
K.M. Bogdanov. The Cataloguing of IOM RAS Tangut Fund: History, Problems and Prospects — 269
This article covers the history of cataloguing of Tangut books’ collection at the Asiatic Museum - IOM RAS. It also gives a description of librarian technologies applied in this work process, as well as of problems and difficulties. It also contains an outline of possible prospects in this area.
K.G. Marandjian. Dmitry Pozdneeff (1865-1937): Sketch of the Portrait of a “Cultural Vagabond” — 281
This is a detailed biography of the famous Japanologist and Sinologist D. Pozdneeff, subjected to repression in 1937. The name of this Orientalist was consigned to oblivion for many years while his books and teaching materials were withdrawn from usage. The article is based on the materials preserved at the Pozdneeff Fund of the Manuscript Department of the Russian National Library. The article is accompanied by D. Pozdneeff’s bibliography.
S.I. Marakhonova. The Russian Japanologist Serge Elisseeff in Harvard — 304
The article deals with the life and scholarly activities of the Japanologist Serge Elisseeff in the USA in 1932-1957. It is based on the documents found by the author in Harvard University’s and Harvard-Yenching Institute’s archives. Elisseeff’s letters to his Russian colleagues are also used. S. Elisseeff’s activities as the organizer of teaching and academic research because of which he was the called “Father of the American Japanology” are discussed.
A.Y. Borisov, A.P. Riftin, N.V. Yushmanov. History of the Department of Semito-Hamitic Philology (Museum of St. Petersburg University History. Fund FIK, Folder 127, Sheets 52-67). Preface and Publication by G.Ch. Kaplan — 315
The manuscript written in 1939 by the three outstanding Russian semitologists and lecturers of the 1st half of the 20th century is stored in the archive of the Museum of St. Petersburg University History. It treats of teaching Semitology and African studies at the St. Petersburg (Leningrad) University during 120 years (1819-1939).
O.M. Chunakova. The International Symposium Celebrating the 125th Anniversary of Academician I. A. Orbeli (Yerevan-Tsakhkadzor, October 13-16, 2012) — 327
I.V. Kulganek. The Fifth Scientific-Practical Conference “Travels to the Orient-2011” — 331
A.H. Yulgusheva. The 34th Annual Session of Saint-Petersburg Arabists — 334
V.P. Ivanoff. The 33rd Zograff Readings (May 16-18, 2012, Saint Petersburg). The Problems of the Traditional Indian Text Interpretation — 337
Yu.V. Boltach. The 5th Dorjiev Readings “Buddhism and the Modern World” (June 13-15, 2012, Saint Petersburg) — 340
N.O. Chehovich. The Exhibition of the Collection of Academician Nikolay Lihachev — 343
I.F. Popova. “The Tanguts and Central Asia” International Conference — 345
Yuriy Malikov. Tsars, Cossacks and Nomads. The Formation of a Borderland Culture in Northern Kazakhstan in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (I.V. Gerasimov) — 348
Indian Philosophy: Encyclopedia. Ed. by M.T. Stepaniants. Inst. of philosophy, RAS (S.L. Burmistrov) — 353
Philosophy of Buddhism: Encyclopedia. Ed. by M.T. Stepanyants. Inst. of Philosophy, RAS (M.I. Vorobyova-Desyatovskaya, E.P. Ostrovskaya) — 357
Anait Georgievna Perihanian (1928-2012) (O.M. Chunakova) — 364