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Mongolica. Vol. XXVI, No. 3. Dedicated to the 95th anniversary of the S.G. Klyashtorny (1928–2014) / Ed. by I. V. Kulganek (editor-in-chief), D. A. Nosov (secretary), M. A. Kozintcev (deputy secretary) et al. St Petersburg, 2023. 118 p. ISSN 2311-5939.


S. G. Klyashtorny (1928–2014) — Life of the Researcher (From the Editorial Board) — 5


Lenar F. Abzalov, Marat S. Gatin, Ilias A. Mustakimov, Roman Yu. Pochekaev. On the “Military Law” and Bringing to Account for Military Crimes in the Turkic-Mongol States of the 13th–14th cc. — 12
The article is an analysis of the system of sources of the military law in the Turkic-Mongol states of the 13th–14th cc. as well as on specific features of responsibility for military crimes. Authors find that basic principles of military organization, soldiers’ duties and waging of military campaigns were fixed in the decrees of Chinggis Khan (the Great Yasa, etc.). But decisions connected with specific military operations were realized in special khans’ edicts — yarliks or firmans which were brief enough to avoid double meaning. The Russian translations of such yarlik from the medieval Persian treatise “Dastur al-katib” (“Guide for the Scribe”) written by the Persian official Muhammad b. Hindushah Nahchivani in 1360s, is published in this article for the first time. As for military crimes, Mongol imperial law regulated responsibility of subordinates and their punishment by commanders, but did not provide the responsibility of warlords for mistakes and defeats in battles. In such cases they were judged by imperial court “jarghu” (“yarghu”) which determined their punishment and submitted it to the approval of khan himself. The responsibility of chief military commander is studied on a base of some cases of military crimes in the Mongol Iran of the end of the 13th — beginning of the 14th c.
Keywords: Mongol Empire, Hulaguid state, Chaghatai Ulus, traditional law, military law, military crimes, medieval Oriental sources.

Igor A. Alimov. Bureaucracy on the Move: Chinese Travel Diaries of the 10th–13th centuries (III) — 25
This article continues the theme of studying the travel diaries of Chinese officials of the 10th–13th centuries and talks about «Shi jin lu» — a diary that Cheng Zhuo kept as a member of the embassy mission to the state of Jin in 1211–1212. This is one of the four most significant diaries of its kind, which is a storehouse of various unique information about the Jurchen state, its customs and traditions, state and territorial structure, as well as the peculiarities of diplomatic etiquette between Song and Jin.
Keywords: China in the 10th–13th centuries, the Song era, travel diaries, traditional Chinese officialdom, embassy, Jin Empire, Cheng Zhuo.

Ramil M. Valeev, Rosa Z. Valeeva. Orientalist-Encyclopedist I. N. Berezin and His Contribution to the Study of the Turkic-Mongolian World. In Commemoration of the 205th Anniversary of His Birth — 33
The article is devoted to the important milestones and periods of the creative biography and legacy in Turkic-Mongolian studies by I. N. Berezin (1818–1896), a graduate of the Oriental department (Vostochny razriad) of Kazan University (1837), a Turkologist, Iranist and traveler, educator, and professor of Kazan (1846–1855) and St. Petersburg Universities (since 1855). He left a noticeable mark in the history of Arab-Muslim and Central Asian studies. The legacy of I. N. Berezin is the embodiment of giftedness, breadth of research interests and scientific discoveries in the field of written and material heritage of the peoples of the East. A linguist, historian, publicist, popularizer of scientific knowledge about the Eastern peoples, he was the one who formed the classical foundations of Oriental studies in Russia. He represented the type of orientalist who combined scientific and educational interests and respect for the history and culture of the peoples of the foreign and Russian East, as well as recognition of the importance of Oriental sources for the study of the history of the Russian state and society. Professor I. N. Berezin was one of the orientalists of encyclopedic knowledge and one of the founders of Russian university Oriental studies, including Turkology, Iranian and Mongolian studies in the 19th century, as well as an editor and publisher of the “Russian Encyclopedic Dictionary”.
Keywords: East, Oriental studies, Turkologist, I. N. Berezin, scientific legacy.

Sergey V. Krasnienko. Ancient Turks near the Northern Outskirts of the Kuznetsk Alatau (Archaeological Data) — 43
The Minusinsk basin or steppes of the Middle Yenisei is a small territory on the scale of Siberia, but very important from the point of view of understanding the archaeological palette of the “cultures of early nomads”. Exactly here the chronological column of archaeological cultures was formulated for the first time since the 3rd millennium BC. This article is devoted to the few, but very important finds of artifacts of the early Middle Ages of Southern Siberia. The finds were made in the north of the Minusinsk basin, in a part called the Nazarovskaya basin. This is the northern border of the settlement of Turkic tribes in the Yenisei Valley and adjacent territories. The finds are represented by iron products (arrowheads, axe-adze, dagger, bits, belt buckles, etc.), as well as fragments of ornamented ceramics of the era of the Uighur Kaganate. The finds represent collections on the territories of ancient settlements, as well as randomly found objects. In addition, several fortified structures are known on this territory. According to analogies known in the adjacent territories — Altai, the south of the Minusinsk basin, Tuva, the complex of finds dates back to the 2nd half of the 1st millennium AD.
Keywords: Minusinsk basin, early Turks, weapon items, Kyrgyz, Karluks, Kyshtyms.

Dávid Somfai Kara. Following the Footsteps of V. Diószegi in Mongolia, 2022 — 52
The article is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of Hungarian ethnologist Vilmos Diószegi (1923–1972), prominent researcher of Siberian shamanic folklore. In 2022, the author and two of his Hungarian colleagues (István Sántha and Zsolt Szilágyi) conducted fieldwork among the Khotogoid people of Northern Mongolia (Khöwsgöl). Diószegi visited Mongolia in 1960 and conducted fieldwork among the Buriad, Khamnigan, Uriankhai, Darkhad, Tofa and Khotogoid. The article discusses the political and cultural context of Diószegi’s fieldwork in Mongolia and the changes that occurred since the collapse of the Soviet system in 1990.
Keywords: shamanic folklore, Southern Siberia, Northern Mongolia, Khotogoid, Darkhad, Tuva, interethnic, fieldwork.

Vadim Yu. Klimov. Admiral Ivan Fedorovich Likhachev (1826–1907) (Half-forgotten Names) — 59
The article is dedicated to the life-service to the Motherland by Ivan Fedorovich Likhachev (1826–1907). From his childhood, he was accustomed to everyday work, mental and physical. He graduated from Maritime Institute. During the Crimean War (1853–1856) at the age of 27–28 I. F. Likhachev was a flag officer under V. A. Kornilov (1806–1854). The first appearance of significant Russian forces in the Pacific Ocean is associated with his name. On November 2, 1860, to a large extent thanks to the efforts of Ivan Fedorovich, the Beijing Treaty was concluded. According to the treaty Russia was recognized the right to own the Amur and Ussuri Territories. On May 21, 1860, Likhachev sent a memorandum to the Admiral General, in which he pointed out the strategic importance of Tsushima Island. He offered to get ahead of British, who were striving to establish a naval base there. Ivan Fedorovich is a bright representative of the glorious Likhachev family, who left a deep mark on science and military labor.
Keywords: Admiral Ivan Fedorovich Likhachev, squadron of Russian ships under Likhachev’s command in the Pacific Ocean, strategic position of Tsushima Island, Tsushima incident, Russian-Japanese relations.

Anvarbek M. Mokeev, Kayrat Belek, Nursultan Abdimitalip uulu. To the Question of the Spread of Buddhism in Kyrgyzstan in the Middle Ages — 74
Based on the comparative study of written sources with the data of archaeology, epigraphy, ethnography, Kyrgyz language materials, and folklore, the article considers the main stages of the spread of Buddhism in Kyrgyzstan in the Middle Ages. A special attention is paid to pre-Islamic beliefs of the Kyrgyz, among which the remnants of Buddhism have a certain place. The main forms of dissemination of Buddhism in Kyrgyzstan are analyzed, where along with missionary activity, violent methods were manifested, especially during the short reign of the Naiman prince Kuchluk, as well as during the Jungar Khanate period. For the first time, attention is paid to the reflection of certain provisions of Buddhist and some terms from Sanskrit in the Kyrgyz language and as well as in the folklore of the Kyrgyz people.
Keywords: Kyrgyzstan, Buddhism, Manas, lama, Lamaism, qut, Buddhist monk, religion.


Youli A. Ioannesyan. “The Fourth Pillar” in the Shaykhi Teachings — 92
The article highlights the Shaykhi concept of the “fourth pillar” and refutes the opinion of some researchers that it was first clearly formulated, put into circulation and turned into one of the four pillars of the teachings of Shaykhism by Hajj Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani. The author proves that regardless of the formulation of this concept that was finally established in this Shiite religious and legal school, it essentially goes back to the teachings of the founders of Shaykhism — Shaykh Ahmad Ahsa’i and Sayyid Kazim Rashti.
Keywords: Shiite Islam, Shaykhi school, perfect Shia.

Mikhail S. Fomkin. Chinese Cultural Influence in the Poem “Kutadgu Bilig” by Yusuf Balasaguni. — 100
The article examines the literary features of Yusuf ulug khass-hadjib’s poem Kutadgu Bilig (“Blessed Knowledge”), and its figurative world. Yusuf Balasaguni’s work clearly captures a wide range of cultural influences and connections. In Kutadgu Bilig one can note obvious signs of Chinese cultural influence, which appear in a very special way at the level of a specific text, its figurative structure. Turning to the Chinese theme, the poet clearly and purposefully creates not just a text, but a special discourse (using words and images with special psycho-emotional content). This discourse has a strong influence on thoughts, emotions, and psychological mood of the listener or reader. In this case, discourse as a special use of language, creates a special mental world. After a textual analysis, the purpose of the poet’s addressing to the Chinese theme, the use of verbal images with sublime semantics mentioning a wide range of authorities indisputable for the poet and his readers, becomes clear. Yusuf Balasaguni aims at including the poem Kutadgu Bilig into the context of high court literature, tries to indicate its relevance and popularity in the highest circles of society, as well as to prove its right to exist in the court society.
Keywords: Kutadgu Bilig, Blessed Knowledge, Yusuf Balasaguni, Turkic poetry.

Bembya L. Mitruev. About the Seals of Agvan Dorzhiev and Danzan Norboev — 104
This article presents sphragistic data about the seals of Agvan Dorzhiev and Danzan Norboev, as well as the titles given to them by the 13th Dalai Lama Tubten Gyatso. The article introduces into academic circulation previously unknown legends on the seals of Agvan Dorzhiev and Danzan Norboev. The materials for the study are the Tibetan and Mongolian texts of the Treaty between Mongolia and Tibet of 1913, deposited in the archive of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation in the Republic of Kalmykia, Baldan Bodiev’s travel certificate sent to the Kalmyk region to collect herbs necessary for Tibetan medicine, published by G. Sh. Dordzhieva in the book “The Repressed Buddhist Clergy of Kalmykia”, and the Tibetan biography of the 13th Dalai Lama Thubten Gyatso “Necklace of Amazing Jewels”, written by Phurbuchok Thubten Jampa Tsultim Tendzin. For the study of the seals special methods in linguistics and textual criticism were used. The study provides a reading of the legends on the seals of A. Dorzhiev and D. Norboev, as well as historical data on the issuance of these seals and titles. The author comes to the conclusion that the seals and titles of A. Dorzhiev and D. Norboev were given by the 13th Dalai Lama. An analysis of the Biography of the 13th Dalai Lama allows us to conclude that similar seals and titles given to A. Dorzhiev and D. Norboev were also granted to other religious figures of Mongolia and Tibet.
Keywords: Agvan Dorzhiev, Danzan Norboev, Ganjurva-gegen, sphragistics, Buryatia.


Tatiana D. Skrynnikova. New Publications on Oriental Studies — 115
Keywords: Eberhard, Oguz epic, plot structure, nomadic empires, Inner Asia, early Middle Ages, politogenesis.


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