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Mongolica. Vol. XXVI, No. 2. Dedicated to the anniversary of the Mongolist A. G. Sazykin (1943–2005) / Ed. by I. V. Kulganek (editor-in-chief), D. A. Nosov (secretary), M. A. Kozintcev (deputy secretary) et al. St Petersburg, 2023. 96 p. ISSN 2311-5939.


Keemya V. Orlova. A. G. Sazykin (1943–2005) in Russian Mongol Studies (on the eightieth anniversary of his birth) — 5
In 2023, Alexey Georgievich Sazykin (15.08.1943–31.03.2005), a well-known Russian Mongolian philologist, representative of the classical St. Petersburg School of Oriental Studies, would have turned 80 years old. His untimely death at the age of 62 ended the researcher’s life at the height of his creative activity. Today, after 18 years, his high professionalism, dedication to the chosen field, deep knowledge of the Mongolian book culture becomes absolutely clear. Colleagues and followers appreciate the enormous amount of work done by A. G. Sazykin, a large number of academic papers written by him, brilliant thoughts expressed during discussions, advice to young colleagues — that is, everything that is called a contribution to Russia’s Mongol Studies. A. G. Sazykin is the author of seven monographs, more than 80 articles. All his publications are distinguished by their fundamental nature, subtle and deep penetration into the “secrets” of the published sources.
Keywords: A. G. Sazykin, Russian oriental studies, Mongolian literature, manuscripts, archive materials.


Irina M. Zakharova, Maria V. Mandrik. On the Preparation of a Private Commercial, Industrial and Scientific Expedition of the Butin Brothers to China in 1870 — 11
The paper continues authors’ research of the commercial, industrial and scientific expedition of the Butin brothers to China previously discussed in Zakharova and Mandrik in 2020, and reveals the history of the expedition arrangement, the stages of its progress through state institutions. Thanks to their management skills, the merchants Butins were able to enlist the support of the local authorities of Eastern Siberia, the large merchants of Siberia and St. Petersburg, the governments of Russia and China. Their persistence in trying to organize the expedition was the key to its success and expanded the possibilities of Russian trade in Asia.
Keywords: brothers N. D. and M. D. Butins, expedition to China, Russian-Chinese trade, M. S. Korsakov, Kyakhta merchant I. A. Noskov.

Tatiana I. Yusupova. Mongolia in the Photographs, at the Turn of the 19th — the First Third of the 20th Century: Experience of Visualizing the History of the Country — 19
The article presents an overview of ten volumes of the book series “Mongolia and Mongols. The history of Mongolia in photos”. This edition was the result of a great work carried out by the Mongolian historian, Member of Mongolian Academy of Sciences Chuluun Sampidondov. In the article the concepts of each volume, the biographies of the photo collections owners, the motivations for their trips to Mongolia, the main objects and plots of photographs are considered; visual images of Mongolia are briefly analyzed. The review author comes to the conclusion that this edition has a valuable informative interdisciplinary potential and expresses confidence that the books series will provide an opportunity to expand further research in all fields of the history of Mongolia.
Keywords: Mongolia, history, photographs, visual sources, images of country and people.


Baira B. Goryaeva. Genre of Kalmyk Folklore "yas kemalhn" (from the Archive of I. I. Popov) — 29
The article is devoted to the description and introduction into academic circulation of the “yas kemalhn” (“the tale of the bone”) sample from the archive of I. I. Popov. In the folklore of the Kalmyks, a special place is occupied by a genre that represents in its content a kind of competition in wit — “yas kemalhn” (“telling by the bone”). The word “kemalhn” comes from “kemahu” — to speak, to say, to utter. The performance of “yas kemal” was considered mandatory at the wedding feast. To test the eloquence and wit of matchmakers, the twenty-fifth vertebra of the sheep, which should have been told, was deliberately placed in a dish for guests who came for the bride. The performance of “yas kemalhn” is based on a dialogue, two people participate in it. The listeners or the questioner expressed their reaction with approving exclamations, after which they proceeded to reveal the next feature of the bone. At the same time, a certain and strict sequence of answers was observed: the first is short and incorrect, the second answer recognizes the wrongness of the first, and only the third is correct and clarifying. At the moment, in Kalmyk folklore there are several samples of the bone tale, published at different times. In this article, for the first time, the text “yas kemalhn” (“the tale of the bone”), presented in a handwritten book entitled “Translations of various works from the Kalmyk language into Russian by I. I. Popov,” is introduced into scientific circulation. The collector notes that he received this sample in a letter from the Don Kalmyk Bamba Asanov on February 5, 1897. At the moment, this is the earliest fixation of this genre of Kalmyk folklore.
Keywords: kalmyks, folklore, yas kemalhn (the tale of the bone), variant, I.I. Popov, archive.

Byambajav Bayarjargal. The Study of Cases of Correspondence "Postposition–Postposition" in Different Time Slices of the Mongolian Language (Based on the Texts of the 13th, 17th and 20th Centuries) — 37
In the article, based on the material of written monuments of different time slices of the Khalkha-Mongolian language, cases of correspondence «postposition-postposition» are considered, an attempt is made to quantify every postposition in each of the texts under consideration. As illustrative material, tables, diagrams and graphs are given with examples of postpositions found in texts of the 13th, 17th and 20th centuries. Based on the analyzed data, a conclusion is made about the trend of the linguistic development of the Mongolian language.
Keywords: postposition, Mongolian, written monuments.

Maria P. Petrova. Signs and Symbols of Rimma Khaninova's Visual Poetry — 42
The article is devoted to the analysis of system of symbols and signs in visual poetry of the famous Kalmykian poet Rimma Khaninova (born 1955). Emergence of the genre of visual poetry dates back to ancient times. It is believed that the first to write visual or graphic poetry was Greek poet, grammarian of the Alexandrian school, Simmias of Rhodes (4th century BC). Graphic poetry was a fairly popular genre in the Eastern literature. Examples can be found in classical Persian miniatures, Chinese calligraphy, modern Mongolian poetry. According to most researchers, visual poetry is a genre that combines artistic, visual and literary means. Recently, modern Kalmyk poet writing in Russian, Rimma Khaninova, turned to the genre of visual poetry. External form of her experimental poems is most often the silhouette of the subject, the name of which is the main motive, the expression of the theme, the key word, the most important concept of the entire work. Visual images of Khaninova’s poetic texts are inextricably linked with the traditions of nomadic culture. Signs related to the plan of content, correlating with the external graphic form and supported by it, form the meanings of the author’s concept sphere.
Keywords: symbol, sign, concept sphere, visual poetry, Kalmykia, Rimma Khaninova.

Ragchaa Bigermaa. Folklore Traditions of the Poetry of the National Writer B. Lhagvasuren (on the Example of the Poem "Cape Wrapped in a Fairy Tale") — 52
One of the most important cultural values of the Mongolian people is folklore. A large number of folk songs, fairy tales, legends, games have reached our time. The honored writer B. Lhagvasuren occupies a leading place in the development of modern Mongolian literature. He wrote several children’s poems using folklore motifs. This article analyzes the poem “Cape wrapped in a fairy tale”, an attempt is made to reveal the artistic features of the work, which reflects the unique features of the mentality, culture, traditional thinking, principles of morality of the Mongols. The article draws an analogy of the behavioral motivations of modern heroes with the basic attitudes of the actions of the characters of Mongolian folklore. The article touches upon the problems of tradition and innovation of modern Mongolian poetry, the mental connections of the poet of the XX century with the poetry of ancient times. Attention is paid to the genre of the Mongolian fairy tale, understood by the author of the article as a type of oral literature, the purpose of which is to illustrate an example expressed with the help of a conditional representation of reality, the aspirations of the people. The article attempts to understand the innovative artistic methods and techniques used by B. Lhagvasuren to attract fairy-tale material into his works.
Keywords: Mongolian folklore, tales, traditions, innovation, poetry.

Bair L. Tushinov. Chahar Geshe Losang Tsultim (1740–1810): "Heart of the Namtar" by Je Tsongkhapa — 59
The article compares the Tibetan and Mongolian versions of the XI chapter from the work of the famous Mongolian lama-scholar, educator and writer Chahar Geshe Losang Tsultim [cha har dge bshes blo bzang tshul khrims, 1740–1810] “The source of all good and happiness: the life story of the great omniscient Je Tsongkhapa, explained in an easy to understand way” [rje thams cad mkhyen pa’i tsong kha pa chen po’i rnam thar go sla bar brjod pa bde legs kun gyi ‘byung gnas]. This work is one of the most extensive biographies of the great Tibetan teacher, the founder of the Geluk school Je Tsongkhapa Losang Dakpa [rje tsong kha pa blo bzang grags pa, 1357–1419]. Due to its size, it acquired the second popular name Namtar chenmo [rnam thar chen mo] — Great Namtar. The purpose of the article is to introduce into academic circulation the little-studied work of Chahar Geshe.
Keywords: Chahar Geshe, Chahar Gebshi, Great Namtar, Biography of Tsongkhapa, Losang Tsultim.

Vasilii Z. Tserenov. Historical Realities of the Tale "A Wise Daughter-in-Law" (a Legend of Kereyids) — 69
The tale «A wise daughter-in-law», known among several Turkic and Mongolian peoples, reflects social relations established during centuries in nomadic communities of Central Asia and South Siberia. One of the ancient motives of this tale is a role and meaning of allegorical speech. Rashid-ad-din, a medieval Persian historian, wrote down a legend about a brave action of vengeance by Kutuktai-Kherikchi, a valiant widow of Kereyids’ khan named Markus-khan who was killed by Tatars, and also recorded an information about capture of Van-khan in his childhood by Tatars and his liberation. It is possible that these historical events formed a basis of corresponding episodes of this tale.
Keywords: khan, wise daughter-in-law, Kereyids, Markus-khan, valiant widow.

Natalia V. Yampolskaya. On the Formation of the Oirat Versions of one Sang Dedicated to the White Old Man — 76
The article introduces four manuscript texts written in Oirat Clear Script, dedicated to the White Old Man — a widely venerated deity of the popular religion of Mongolian peoples included in the Buddhist pantheon. The manuscripts represent one of the most widely spread texts of the White Old Man cult connected with the incense offering ritual (sang). A comparative study of the Oirat texts in collation with their Mongolian and Tibetan counterparts has shown that there are two Oirat versions of this sang: the basic version, which corresponds to the widely known Mongolian text, and the extended version, which presumably formed within the Oirat cultural milieu under the influence of other texts dedicated to the White Old Man. One of the texts of the basic version is a back translation from Tibetan into Oirat, which makes it an interesting example of text transformation in the multilingual environment of Buddhist and popular ritual. The transliteration and translation of both Oirat versions are presented in the appendix to the article.
Keywords: White Old Man, sang, incense offering, ritual texts, Oirat language, Clear Script, todo bičiq.


Tatiana D. Skrynnikova. Rev. of the book: Anton K. Salmin. Academic Studies of the Ethnic Identity of the Chuvash People. St. Petersburg, Nestor-Istoria, 2022. 332 p. ISBN 978-5-4469-1994-9 — 92


Erdeniin Purevzhav (1961–2023) — 96


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