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Mongolica. Vol. XXVI, No. 1. Dedicated to the anniversary of the Mongolist Nina Pavlovna Shastina (1898–1980) / Ed. by I. V. Kulganek (editor-in-chief), D. A. Nosov (secretary), M. A. Kozintcev (deputy secretary) et al. St Petersburg, 2023. 106 p. ISSN 2311-5939.


CONTENTS

Svetlana S. Sabrukova. Review of N. P. Shastina’s (1898–1980) collection (from the Archives of Orientalists at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences) — 5
This article reviews the biography of Nina Pavlovna Shastina — a scholar of Mongolian studies as well as historiography of the Mongolian People’s Republic and oriental studies in Russia. It contains a description of documents from Shastina’s collection (collection 146) which is kept in the Archives of Orientalists of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The previously unpublished documents shed new light on some aspects of the scholar’s life. The letters that Shastina sent to T.A. Burdukova in which she described her studies may be of a special interest to researchers. The article contains a description of the documents that are kept in the collection: research works and materials (1922–2003), biographical documents (1922 — no later than 1980), research and teaching activities (1937–1980), documents that belonged to Shastina’s relatives (no later than 1980) plus research works and materials of other people (1905–1980).
Keywords: N.P. Shastina, study of history, oriental studies in Russia, historiography of Mongolian People’s Republic, archive materials.

HISTORIOGRAPHY. SOURSE STUDIES. HISTORY

Roman Yu. Pochekaev. Trial of 1251 and Munqesar-noyon: On the status of jarguči in the Mongol empire of the 13th c. — 14
The article is an historical legal analysis of trial of the descendants of Chinggis Khan and their followers who participated in the plot against khan Möngke in 1251. The principal attention is paid to procedural aspects of this case, stages of the trial, participants, evidences which were used to accuse conspirators. The central figure of the trial was noyon Möngkesar who held a position of supreme jarguči (judge) of the Mongol Empire. Author attempts on the basis of this case to clarify his rights and obligations and then to clarify the legal status of jarguči in the Mongol Empire of the 13th c.
Keywords: Mongol Empire, traditional law, court and proceedings, judge’s status.

Yuliya I. Elikhina. Finds of the Mongolo-Tibetan expedition headed by P.K. Kozlov from Southern Khangai in the collection of the State Hermitage — 22
In the article, the author gives a description of some of the finds of the Mongolian-Tibetan expedition headed by P. K. Kozlov 1923–1926 in southern Khangai. After the completion of the excavations of Noyon-Ula, the researchers also studied the territory of the southern Khangai from August 1925 to September 1926. They dug out mounds, marked burial grounds, dug up some burials, recorded rock paintings and inscriptions, and collected hoist material. To study the origin of the finds, the author used the published diary of P. K. Kozlov and his expedition photographs. The finds, there are 365 of them, belong to different times, starting from the Xiongnu period and ending with architectural fragments of the 17th century. In 1926 they entered the State Academy of Material Culture, and in 1936 they were transferred to the State Hermitage. These artifacts have not been published nor introduced into scientific circulation.
Keywords: finds, Mongol-Tibetan expedition, P. K. Kozlov, Southern Khangai, hoist material.

Tatiana D. Skrynnikova. The “Lamentation” of Tolui in “The Secret History of the Mongols” — 29
The article is devoted to the analysis of one of the elegiac passages in the Secret History of the Mongols. This passage is a poetic description of Ugedei’s disease and method of its treatment: in order to rid Ugedei of the disease, the lords and khats of the land-water of the Chinese people demanded his close relative as a jolik substitute. Shamans performed the rite of ransom of Ugedei’s life: the object that took over Ugedei’s disease was Tolui. Tolui explains why he goes to sacrifice - to save the leader and head of the Mongol people chosen by Genghis Khan; describes the history of his relationship with Ugedei. This text may indicate the existence of a real ransom of human life among the Mongols. The structure of this small text and the symbolic meaning of its parts make it possible to designate it as the lamentation of Tolui, the youngest son of Chinggis Khan, for himself.
Keywords: The Secret History of the Mongols, Tolui, Ugedei, jolik, substitute of the patient, genre of the lamentation, elegy.

STUDIES IN PHILOLOGY

Chuluun Zayasuren. Influence of Minor Folklores Genres on Intellectual Development of Children — 35
The present paper determines that minor genres of Mongolian folklore such as triads (ёртөнцийн гурав) and riddles have high impact on children’s intellectual development. By mastering these minor genres of folklore, one can mentally grasp, identify, compare and summarize things fluently. By playing mind-blowing word games, children can increase their vocabulary and improve their speaking skills, earning at the same time great knowledge of livelihood. Riddles and triads are traditional methods of folk pedagogy that can be used to train children in many ways of thinking, to learn problem-solving skills, and to develop independent creative thinking.
Keywords: children’s intellectual development, riddle, number puzzle, grammar puzzle, logic puzzle, triad.

Gerolt-Od Batzaya. The History and Current Situation of Classification of the Mongolian Languages and Dialects — 41
The problem within classification of dialects of the Mongolian languages has not been resolved yet. However at the same time, the urge to classify dialects of the modern Mongolian languages really exists. In order to conduct large-scale comprehensive studies of the language of the Mongolian-speaking peoples, it is first necessary to determine the current state and trends in the further development of the Mongolian language, as well as to conduct a comparative study of the state and development of the distinctive features of dialects, in various territorial locations of Mongolia. Due to the classification of researchers, the Mongolian language currently includes 9 languages, 19 dialects, 37 subdialects and approximately 70 oral subdialects. It is believed that about 10 million people are native speakers of the Mongolian language and its various dialects. This classification is the main reference point for studying many aspects, such as the origin, evolution, richness and patterns of development of the language units of the Mongolian languages. Therefore, we hope that our research will have a significant impact on preserving the diversity of dialects of the Mongolian languages, to prevent the decline in the number of people speaking these dialects.
Keywords: Mongolian languages, dialects, classification, history, current status: language, dialect, oral dialect, branch oral dialect, population.

Tsagan B. Seleeva. Poetic Features of Kalmyk Folk Riddles — 61
The article is devoted to the consideration of the thematic and content aspects of the Kalmyk folk riddles. The relevance of the problem is due to the fact that riddles belong to the little-studied genres of Kalmyk folklore. Being culturally marked texts, riddles play a special role in the accumulation and transmission of the collective experience of the material and spiritual life of the people from generation to generation, in the knowledge of the objective laws of life and society. The thesaurus of riddles, as a world of sacred objects, reflects mythologems and elements of the astral cult; in older examples of Kalmyk riddles, remnants of animistic cults are preserved, and anthropomorphism is characteristic of later ones. In riddles, as in fairy tales, animals and birds are endowed with symbolic and comic features. Images of the plant world contain deep observations of the people of the world around them, there is a variety of plants and plant cultures growing in the steppe area. In the texts of riddles, relics of hunting and pastoral life, rudiments of ancient rites and rituals, observations of natural phenomena have been preserved. The national identity of the Kalmyk riddle is characterized by objects and elements of traditional life, reflecting the realities of the nomadic life of the people. Along with the traditional themes, the riddles reflect the historical, socio-political, economic and religious life of the Kalmyk society. The significant influence of Buddhism on the Kalmyk folklore tradition brought to life a plan of Buddhist realities and riddles. The theme of riddles includes everything that is reflected in the worldview of the people, their moral, ethical and aesthetic ideals, the materialistic understanding of the world around them.
Keywords: Kalmyk folk riddles, Kalmyk folklore, small genres, thesaurus of riddles, poetics of riddles.

Badma-Khanda B. Tsybikova. Traditional folklore in the Buryat Diasporas of China and Mongolia — 73
The article highlights the fate of the Buryat folklore in a different ethnic environment; it reveals the originality of enclave traditions in China and Mongolia based on the characteristics of the oral local tradition in two territorially isolated groups of Buryats abroad. The peculiarities of the existence of traditional folklore in the emigrant diasporas of the Buryats are associated with the nature of settlement, environment; an important factor that influenced the modification of folklore culture was the historical conditions, political factors of the relationship between migrants and the host society. After analyzing the folklore and ethnographic landscape of the two Buryat enclaves, the following conclusion was drawn: if the Buryats of China in a foreign socio-cultural environment feel themselves as a part of the ethnic Buryats of Russia, the Mongolian Buryats, not forgetting their roots and origin, have more reason to consider themselves an integral unit of the Mongolosphere. This situation was peculiarly expressed in the fact that the existing folklore heritage of the Buryat diaspora in China is distinguished by its ethnic identity, combining maternal and common Mongolian traditions; in Mongolia, there is a tendency to merge the traditional folklore of the Buryats with the related Khalkha-Mongolian.
Keywords: folklore, Buryat diasporas in China and Mongolia.

Danara V. Ubushieva. Ivan Ivanovich Popov and his collection of Kalmyk folklore — 80
The article is devoted to the collector of Kalmyk oral folk art I. I. Popov and the description of his folklore collection. His handwritten books are kept in the State archive of the Rostov region and in the Mongolian fund of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Folklore collection of I. I. Popov according to the time of recording, is one of the earliest and contains nine handwritten books in which the song of the epic “Dzhangar”, fifty-one fairy tales, legends, fables, proverbs, sayings, riddles, omens, rites, Buddhist writings, ritual texts of the Uryus Sar holiday, the sutra of the White Elder, the tale of the bone and much more are recorded. The dates of the life and death of I. I. Popov have been established (1859–1925), and it is also documented that the collector of Kalmyk folklore had a candidate of law degree and worked as a justice of the peace from 1899–1914. The introduction of this collection into scientific circulation will expand scientific knowledge on the culture of the Kalmyks, will allow to a certain extent to take a fresh look at the connections of Kalmyks folklore with other related and unrelated peoples and will also give Mongolists the opportunity for typological research.
Keywords: Ivan Ivanovich Popov, “clear letter”, recording and preservation of Kalmyk folklore, epic “Dzhangar”, fairy tales, legends, proverbs, sayings, riddles, omens, rites, Buddhist writings, ritual texts of the Uryus Sar holiday, the White Elder sutra, bone telling, comments, translation into Russian.

REVIEWS

Iuliia V. Boltach. The eleventh St. Petersburg seminar of Tibetan studies (St. Petersburg, November 28, 2022) — 93

Tamara G. Basangova. Works of Folklorists of Kalmyk State University named after B. B. Gorodovikov published in 2022 — 98

Natalia V. Yampolskaya. Rev. of the book: Heritage of Chinggis Khaan’s Capital City Karakorum / Ed. A. Enkhtur; Comp. L. Munkhbayar, T. Batbayar. Ulaanbaatar, 2021. – 244 p.: ill. (Archaeological Relics of Mongolia Catalogue Series / Eds.-in. chief G. Eregzen, S. Chuluun V. 11) (in Mongolian) — 101

IN MEMORIAM

Mariia P. Petrova. In memory of D. Tsedev (1940–2023) — 105

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