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Mongolica. Vol. XXV, No. 3 / Ed. by I. V. Kulganek (editor-in-chief), D. A. Nosov (secretary), M. A. Kozintcev (deputy secretary) et al. St Petersburg, 2022. 94 p. ISSN 2311-5939.



D. Zayabaatar. The loss of the consonant -l- and syllable -lа/le- in Mongolian — 5
Because of the principle of linguistic economy and assimilation processes between sounds, sounds that have come to distinguish meaning (phonemes) get lost in the course of articulation. Due to the phonetic interdependency or sandhi (the mutual influence of adjacent sounds in a word), phonemes that have lost the morphological function to distinguish meaning in the process of generating and recognizing speech tend to become weaken and elided. In the written monuments of the Mongolian language, there are traces of a similar loss of a weak, voiced, apical, non-labial, lateral, fricative, and resonant -l- consonant. The loss of -l- under such conditions is called haplology and is represented in many languages. This article examines the loss/dropping of the consonant -l- and the syllable -la- / -le- in the written monuments of the Mongolian language and identifies its related patterns in Modern Mongolian. In addition to the historical dropping of the sound -l- in a situation where there are two consecutive syllables in one word, each of which contains a consonant -l-, one of these syllables drops out. In addition, if the reciprocal voice suffix -ld- (-ldu- / -ldü-) occurs after the verb derivation suffix -la4 (-la / -le), then in speech the unstressed syllable -la4- also becomes elided. Subsequently, in terms of the morphological surface structure, the suffix -ld- is added directly to the noun stem in colloquial speech and, similarly, such irregular formation of verbs is built into the general system of Mongolian word formation. This indicates that, in addition to morphological structures, the meaning and function of morphemes are also analogically influenced by adaptation to speech acts (utterances). Such a phenomenon is observed in the Mongolian language. Phonetic changes occurring in speech usually do not find their reflection in spelling rules or the orthography of written language. In other words, the limitless possibilities of writing based on spoken pronunciation are limited or standardized by the rules of correct spelling or orthography. Since the Mongolian language is agglutinative, the rules of word formation and morphological principles should be significantly emphasized in orthography. For this reason, the consonant -l- and the syllable -la / -le, which are elided as a result of haplology in speech, should be restored in the dictionary in accordance with the morphological structure.
Keywords: the loss of the consonant -l-, morphological principle, orthographical system, written sources, Mongolian language


A. A. Berdyeva. The influence of Western literary and philosophical trends on modern literature of the Republic of Korea — 17
The main task of the article is the analysis of the Western influence in philosophical and literary terms on the modern literature of the Republic of Korea. South Korea has been included in the globalized world since the end of World War II. The main issue here is the tragic nature of this war which made the problems of people from different countries the same in many contexts. If we speak about modern Korean literature, it is necessary to keep in mind the traditional peculiarities of Korean literature as well as the conditions under which it turned out to be called modern. The end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century was the time when the Korean Peninsula could meet with Western literary and philosophical works of different periods. This acquaintance led to a transformation of traditional culture and literature. In the second half of the 20th century as well as at the beginning of the new century the concern of Korean authors in achievements of Western civilization in the field of culture and literature is still alive. This article proposes an analysis of the features of modern Korean literature in the time of globalized modernity which is based on Western achievements in literary and philosophical fields.
Keywords: Korean literature, world literature, global philosophy, literature in the second half of the 20th century, existentialism, the concept of the Other, interpenetration of philosophy and literature, the Hangul generation, women’s prose of Korea

N. V. Yampolskaya. On the structure of the seventeenth-century Mongolian manuscript Kanjurs: volumes ga and da of the «Sutras» section in the copies from Ablaikit — 24
The paper presents the results of one portion of the work on identifying and studying the fragments of two manuscripts of the Buddhist canon Kanjur in the Mongolian language found at the site of the Dzungar monastery Ablaikit. The study focuses on the folia marked as belonging to volumes ga and da of the “Sutras” section. The appendices to the article provide full identification of each surviving folio, as well as the structure of the volumes they belong to compared with the other Mongolian Kanjur manuscripts known today. The analytical part of the paper deals with those newly discovered features of the Ablaikit copies that reveal differences with the other manuscript Kanjurs: the lack of confusion in the markers of volumes nga and da, and the presence of the full text of the Mongolian translators’ colophon to the Sukhāvatīvyūha sutra. These new data indicate that the Ablaikit Kanjurs must be closely related to the archetype, and confirm the previously noted connection between the archaic group of Kanjurs and the Ulaanbaatar manuscript.
Keywords: Kanjur, Ablaikit, Sukhavativyuha, Samdan Sengge


A. Alimaa. The cultural significance of the ceremony of cutting the hair of Khalkha children in Mongolia at the present time — 41
Based on archival and new field materials, the article examines the ritual of first hair cutting in its connection with tradition. The Mongols call this rite in different ways - removing (cutting) hair from children, etc. This ritual has existed for a long time and is clearly reflected in the monuments of the heroic epic. For the first removal of “virgin” hair on a child’s head, the Mongols do not use metal or sharp knives. First, they pretend to remove the hair with wooden scissors, then cut the hair in the right direction, starting from the right side of the head. Almost the entire head of the child is shaved, with the exception of a small tuft of hair (тав). Each participant in the ritual pronounces a blessing and makes a gift to this child. An auspicious day is chosen for the first haircut. The ritual turns into a small celebration, during which all family members and distant relatives are praised. This ritual remains relevant for modern Mongols and attracts the attention of not only ethnographers and folklorists, but also performers of folklore. The author of the article managed to take part in the ritual of the first haircut for children in a family of representatives of the Western Khalkha ethnic group in the Uyanga somon of Uvurkhangay aimag. The author also discovered another interesting fact related to the research conducted in that area. During the analysis of sources, it was possible to find out that ancient elements are preserved in the modern ritual of the first haircut of a child among the Khalkha people. To confirm his hypothesis, the author cited information from additional sources, as well as materials from the expedition to the Tsagaan-Ovoo sum of the Dornod aimag.
Keywords: Virgin hair, children’s first hair cut, haircut rite, Mongolian rituals and oral traditions

B. Kh. Borlykova, B. V. Menyaev. The Kalmyk songs dedicated to the Oirat nobility of the XVII–XVIII centuries — 51
The article discusses the texts of Kalmyk historical songs about the Oirat nobility of the 17th–18th centuries, presented in the handwritten collection “Kalmyk Songs”, stored in the handwritten department of the Library of the Faculty of Asian and African Studies of St. Petersburg State University. The lyrics observed are unique examples of Kalmyk song creation.
Keywords: : Kalmyk historical songs, collection “Kalmyk songs”, Eastern Department of the M. Gorky Scientific Library of St. Petersburg State University, Oirat nobility of the 17th–18th centuries, Galdama, Mokush noyon, Davachi

G. Byambaragchaa. Mongolian Knucklebones Game Played on Ice — 61
A game is one of the types of human entertainment activities that reflects the historical development of an ethnic group — its idea of society, history, culture. For a nomadic pastoral society, the game is an especially important element of culture. It performs the function of a social network, a thread connecting people, a “glue” that holds society together. The game has incorporated elements of ritual and tradition. By connecting a person with the past, it recreates and models the behavior of people of earlier historical periods. Being one of the forms of drama, it creates short-term connections between members of society, thereby consolidating it. The knucklebones (Mong. шагай) is one of the most common traditional games of the Mongols. The article describes knucklebones game played on ice — the only traditional game which is played by the Mongols in winter time. This game is directly related to the traditional way of life of the Mongols. At the same time it includes a number of religious elements. It is known that the game was most widespread among the Western Khalkha Mongols. However, to date, the origin of this game remains unclear.
Keywords: Mongols, culture, entertainment, knucklebones game played on ice


Y. A. Ioannesyan. The Herati preposition ta(y)-ye / tey-ye: phonetic transformation or contamination of two prepositions? — 67
This article deals with a preposition in the Herati dialect, which completely coincides in semantics and grammatical functions with the Persian preposition tu-ye, but is phonetically more similar to the preposition ta(h)-e. Based on the analysis, comparison with analogues in other Persian and Iranian dialects, the author comes to the conclusion that with a high degree of probability it can be assumed that the Herati preposition historically represents a contamination of tu-ye and ta(h)-e, which was facilitated by phonetic proximity and partly echoing circle of grammatical meanings of both prepositions. At the same time, from a synchronic point of view, this preposition in Herati is quite correct to consider as a dialectal variant of the Persian tu-ye.
Keywords: Persian dialectology, Iranian dialectology, the Khorasani Persian dialects

N. E. Vassilyeva. The study of the manuscript "Majmū‘ at-tavārīh" and its meaning for the historical ethnography of the peoples of Central Asia — 74
The article describes how, in the second half of the 20th century, A. T. Tagirdzhanov drew the attention of scientists to a new handwritten source of information of a linguistic, folklore, historical and ethnographic nature. The historian V. A. Romodin and the philologist V. M. Zhirmunsky were actively involved in the study of the manuscript. Manuscript “Majmū‘ at-tavārīh” (“Collection of stories”), a handwritten copy from a 16th century source, was written in colloquial Tajik in the 18th century. All researchers recognized the manuscript as unique, requiring publication. V. A. Romodin involved his students in the study of the manuscript, but only separate fragments of the manuscript have been published so far.
Keywords: “Majmū‘ at-tavārіkh” (“Collection of stories”), A. T. Tagirjanov, V. A. Romodin, V. M. Zhirmunsky, “Manas”, lists of 92 “ilatiya tribes”, Uzbek tribes, Kyrgyz tribes


O. N. Polyanskaya. International academic conference "Banzarov readings" dedicated to the 200th anniversary of Dorzhi Banzarov and the 90th anniversary of BSPI - BSU (Russia, Ulan-ude, March 30–31, 2022) — 84

Ts. Ts. Sarantsatsral. "Around Repin's Academy's 3" special exhibition — 89

I. V. Kulganek. New publications on Mongolian Studies — 92


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