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Mongolica. Vol. XXV, No. 2 / Ed. by I. V. Kulganek (editor-in-chief), D. A. Nosov (secretary), M. A. Kozintcev (deputy secretary) et al. St Petersburg, 2022. 70 p. ISSN 2311-5939.


CONTENTS

STUDIES IN PHILOLOGY

A. S. Dongak. Historical traditions and legends of Tuvans and narratives and ideas of the West Mongolian peoples about Amarsan and Chingunzhav — 5
Since ancient times, the Tuvan and Mongol peoples have been in close historical and cultural relationships, which became the basis for the emergence and mutual influence of common plots of mythological representations, epic legends, heroichistorical and toponymic traditions and legends and other genres of folklore. The legends and historical traditions of the West Mongolian peoples and Tuvans also reflect the common struggle against the Manchu conquerors. In Tuva and Mongolia, there are widespread legends and traditions about the Oirot Amursan and the Hotogoyt Chingunzhava, who led the resistance movement against the invaders of the Qing Empire. In the article, the author examines in a comparative aspect the plots and motives of Tuvan legends and legends about Amursan and Chingunzhava with similar narratives of the West Mongol peoples.
Keywords: Tuvan folklore, historical legends and traditions, Western Mongol peoples, texts, plot, motives, parallels, commonality

T. N. Pashtakova. Altai epic “Dyangar” in the repertoire of the Altai and other Turkic and Mongolian peoples — 15
The article examines the Altai legend “Dyangar”, starting from the first mentions in research about this epic, since the text itself was written in the 1980s. The scale of the text, the late recording of the text during the extinction of the epic process raised a number of questions. Some researchers began to consider it as a borrowed Mongolian version, others recorded in detail the testimonies of the storytellers themselves, who confirmed the existence of this epic in the repertoire of their teachers. In this regard, we provide a detailed chronology of the fixation of these mentions, then we compare the recorded text from the hereditary storyteller N. Yalatov with the repertoire of Altai tales, including the famous texts of the prominent storyteller N. Ulagashev, since it was he who recorded the first evidence of the existence of the monumental legend “Dyangar”. Comparison with other texts proves the stability of storylines in the repertoire of Altai legends, so we consider the following issues about the comparison of his storylines, motives, similarities with other texts of Altai heroic tales. Attention is also paid to analogies in the epic of other Turkic and Mongolian peoples, which indicate the common plot origins of these tales.
Keywords: Altaians, epic, Dyangar, text, plots, narrator, poetics

HISTORIOGRAPHY. SOURCE STUDIES

B. L. Mitruev. Seals of the Oirat khans — 25
After the fall of the Yuan dynasty, the Oirat rulers turned their eyes westward to Tibet as the center of spiritual and secular power. Many of these rulers sought the Khan’s seal and title from the Dalai Lama. This study examines the seals of three rulers of Dzungar Khanate: Yeselbein Sayn-Ka, Galdan-Boshigtu-khan and Davatsi. The purpose of the article is to introduce the sphragistic data on the seals of the Oirat rulers and formulate assumptions about the nature and origin of these seals. The material for the study is letters in Kalmyk, stored in the National Archive of the Republic of Kalmykia, as well as publications of documents with the seals of Oirat rulers. Results. During the study the content of the seal legends of the rulers was clarified and hypotheses about their origin were put forward.
Keywords: Yeselbein Sayn-Ka, Else-Orshihi, Galdan-Boshigtu Khan, Davatsi, Kalmyk sphragistics

RELATED DISCIPLINES

S. L. Burmistrov. Evolution of the Concept of Emptiness: from Pāli Canon to Late Madhyamaka — 35
The term “emptiness” (śūnyatā), fundamental for the Mahāyāna Buddhism, appears for the first time in Pāli Canon where it designates absence of something constant in the saṃsāric world. It is semantically associated with the basic Buddhist dogmatic concept of anātman denoting the non-existence of “I” or something related to “I”. The term “emptiness” is interpreted in early Mahāyāna sūtras (“Aṣṭasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra”, “Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra”, “Saṃdhinirmocanasūtra”) in the same way. According to “Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra” it has fully instrumental character and does not denote any quality of reality itself. In Madhyamaka it is treated as a notion designating non-existence anything self-existent (causing itself). Anyway the basic aspect of the term “emptiness” is the soteriological one: it is necessary for the transformation of the consciousness of adept that makes it free from afflictions and lets it know the true reality.
Keywords: Buddhist written monuments in Sanskrit, Mahāyāna sūtras, Pāli Canon, nirvāṇa, bodhisattva ideal

ARCHIVES OF MONGOLIAN STUDIES

S. S. Sabrukova. A history of Mongolian studies in Russia: from the memoirs of G. I. Mikhaylov (1909–1986) — 45
The article is dedicated to the recollections of G. I. Mikhaylov — a 20th c. prominent Russian researcher of Mongolia in which he remembers his teachers and colleagues — B. Ya. Vladimirtsov, G. E. Grum-Grshimailo, A. V. Burdukov, S. A. Kozin, N. N. Poppe and G. N. Rumyantsev and which were discovered in the private collection of N. P. Shastina now kept in the Archives of Orientalists at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Science. G. I. Mikhailov called his memoirs ‘notebooks about the distinguished Russian orientalists’, in them he was also describing the details of his life at that time, his personal opinions and views on various events taking place in the life of his ‘characters’. The memoirs cover the period of more than forty years — from 1926 till 1967. They are written in a vivid captivating language with the use of dialogue.
Keywords: B. Ya. Vladimirtsov, G. E. Grum-Grshimailo, A. V. Burdukov, S. A. Kozin, N. N. Poppe, G. N. Rumyantsev

REVIEWS

T. G. Basangova. Proceedings and publications on Kalmyk folklore in 2021 — 57

T. V. Ermakova. The 12th Conference «Current Issues of Buddhological and Indological Studies» (St. Petersburg, March, 14, 2022) — 61

Ts. Sarantsatsral. International Academic Conference «Ilya Repin Academy of Arts in Mongolian Fine Arts» — 66

IN MEMORIAM

L. B. Badmaeva. In memory of the Teacher — L. D. Shagdarov (October 29, 1930 — March 13, 2022) — 68

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