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Mongolica. Vol. XXIV, 2021, No. 4. Dedicated to the 220th birthday anniversary of Osip Mikhailovich Kovalevsky (1801–1878) / Ed. by I. V. Kulganek (editor-in-chief), D. A. Nosov (secretary), M. A. Kozintcev (deputy secretary) et al. St Petersburg, 2021. 96 p. ISSN 2311-5939.


RESEARCH ACTIVITIES OF OSIP M. KOVALEVSKY

N. G. Alfonso. “Buddhist Cosmology” by O. Kovalevsky and “The Teaching of the World” by Vasubandhu — 5
There is a comparative analysis of two treatises covering the issues of Buddhist cosmology in this article: the third part of a treatise “Abhidharmakosha” — Loka-nirdeśa (“The Teaching of the World”) by Vasubandhu (5th cent. A. D.) and “Buddhist cosmology” by O. Kovalevsky (first half of the 19th cent.). Textual analysis of these books and comparison of key paradigms show that the main source of the “Buddhist cosmology” is the treatise “The Teaching of the World”, by Vasubandhu. The scheme of dividing the universe into three worlds, as well as the list of regions or locations within the worlds is preserved. The terms corresponding to the levels of being, geographical names, distances and sizes of physical objects are exactly repeated. At the same time the presentation of O. Kovalevsky is distinguished by a large number of additional plots from late Buddhist and Hindu mythology; minimal importance is given to the esoteric aspects of the structure of the universe, which Vasubandhu laid emphasis on.
Key words: O. Kovalevsky, Buddhist cosmology, Vasubandhu, Abhidharmakosha, teaching of the world

O. N. Polyanskaya. History of Orientalism in the Correspondence of a specialist in Mongolian Studies O. M. Kovalevsky (1801–1878) — 16
The article presents the correspondence of an outstanding scientist and specialist in Mongolian Studies Osip Mikhailovich Kovalevsky. The letters of the English missionary Robert Uell to the scientist give evidence of close cooperation between researchers of the Mongolian language. Kovalevsky didn’t draw on the missionary's works when preparing his works on the Mongolian language, although such a point of view is presented in some contemporary works on the history of the English mission in Siberia. In addition, while studying the epistolary heritage of O. M. Kovalevsky, we have found a name of N. Navrotsky, a student of Osip Mikhailovich at Kazan University, who also studied the Mongolian culture. The article presents O. M. Kovalevsky’s letters, which are a kind of reports about the study of N. Navrotsky at the Mongolian language department, they are the only source of the biography of a little-known researcher in the history and culture of the Mongolian peoples. Excerpts from the letters of Archpriest Konstantin Stukov, lama and teacher of practical classes in the Mongolian language both at the university and at Galsan Nikituev Kazan gymnasium, the Orientalist Vasily Grigoryev testify to the value of O. M. Kovalevsky’s works and his significant role in the development of scientific Mongolian studies.
Key words: Mongolian studies, Kazan University, O. M. Kovalevsky, I. Ya. Schmidt, N. Navrotsky, R. Juell, V. V. Grigoryev, K. Stukov

STUDIES IN HISTORY OF CENTRAL ASIA

A. D. Tsybiktarov, E. O. Khakimova. Activities of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society for the Study of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages of Mongolia (70s XIX — early XX centuries, source study aspect) — 25
The article discusses the study of the contribution of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society to the discovery of the monuments of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in Mongolia and the formation of a source study fund based on them. The authors defines the activities of scientists G. N. Potanin, N. M. Yadrintsev, S. M. Dudin, D. A. Klements, V. V. Radlov, V. A. Obruchev, A. M. Pozdneev and A. N. Kaznakov, who studied khereksurs, deer stones and slab graves in Western, Central and Northern Mongolia. The authors have given the statistical data on the contribution of these scientists to the formation of a source base for them: the discovery of 692 khereksurs at 117 burial grounds, 6 slab burial grounds (at least 7 graves) and 28 deer stones. This article also highlights other aspects of the activities of scientist’s description and drawing up plans of the monuments, altars and memorials, sketches, photographing objects, collection of information about them from the local population.
Key words: Central Asia, Imperial Russian Geographical Society, expeditions, discoveries, Bronze Age, Early Iron Age, source study, khereksurs, deer stones, slab graves

STUDIES IN PHILOLOGY

А. V. Zorin. Ivan Minayev and “Heart of Darkness”: an Indological dimension of J. Conrad’s tale — 33
This paper proposes a hypothesis that the image of the young Russian sailor in J. Conrad’s tale “Heart of Darkness” partially relates to the outstanding Russian Buddhologist I. P. Minayev. The first factor behind this idea was their common Tambov origin. This choice of the birth-place for a fictional character created by a foreign author (albeit connected with Russia) requires an explanation. While external features of the Russian sailor do not correspond to Minayev’s portrait, a number of other details could be based on personal impression made by him on Conrad in early January 1886 in Calcutta. The latter could witness conversation(s) between Minayev and several British officials at the Bengal Club. As follows from Minayev’s diary, they discussed issues related to Indian religions (including the role of charismatic leaders in the genesis of religious movements) and political topics such as the British suppression of Burmese resistance. Minayev’s main subjects of interest — Buddhism and Indian manuscripts — could be touched upon, too. This paper attempts to find traces of their talk(s) in “Heart of Darkness” and its Russian character. The suggested hypothesis explains use of the iconography of the Buddha in Conrad’s tale and proposes a new interpretation of its title.
Key words: I. P. Minayev, expedition to India and Burma, Bengal Club, J. Conrad, “Heart of Darkness”, Buddhism

Enkhsaya Wandan. Semantic Features in the Mongolian Translation of the novel “The Idiot” by Dostoevsky — 40
This study is devoted to the Mongolian translation of the novel by F. M. Dostoevsky's “Idiot”, presented by Ts. Gombosuren in 2014. Increased attention is paid to the specifics of translation strategies, as well as to the identification of semantic features of the text of the translation. In addition, the facts of the history of Dostoevsky's reception in Mongolia are presented for the first time. The relevance of this work is connected, on the one hand, with the increased interest of researchers in the problem of intercultural communication, and in issues of linguistic and cultural interaction in translation. On the other hand, nowadays the literary relationship between Russia and Mongolia, in particular, the translation and its difficulties of Russian classical prose (including Dostoevsky’s texts) do not receive much attention in the (scientific) research.
Key words: Dostoevsky, “Idiot”, translation, perception, dialogue of cultures, Russian Literature, Mongolian language

A. S. Dongak. New field data on folklore and traditional rituals of the peoples of Western Mongolia (khotons, Uryankhais and Tuvinians) — 46
The article was written on the basis of field data collected in 2015 during the expeditionary project of the Russian Humanitarian Scientific Fund-RFBR No. 15-04-18003 e “Small ethnic groups of Turkic origin (Khotons, Uryankhais of Mongolia and Tuvans of China): spiritual and material culture”. Within the framework of the above-mentioned RHSF project, two expeditions took place in 2015: 1) from 15 to 24 July to the Monkh- Khairkhan sum, Duut Khovd aimag and Tarialan sum of the Uvs aimag of Mongolia; 2) from 21 to 28 September 2015 in the sumons of Altantsogts and Tsengel Bayan-Olgiy aimag. The choice of the area for the expedition was determined by the topic of the study, as well as by the well-preserved originality of the traditions of the local population. Invaluable assistance in the work of the expeditions was provided by Associate Professor of the Department of Archeology of the University of Khovd, Doctor (Ph. D.), Ch. Monkhbayar, Head of the Mongolian Studies Sector at Tuvan Institute for Applied Studies of Humanities and Socioeconomics, Candidate of Philology Badarch Bayarsaykhan and Researcher of the Bayan-Olgi Scientific Center of the Academy of Sciences of Mongolia, Ms. B. Zhargalsaykhan. The materials of the expedition are of applied value in the study of ethnic history, linguistic contacts and regional ethnocultural traditions of the Turkic-Mongolian peoples, and the first results of the expeditions were presented in the materials of conferences in Mongolia and Tuva, and this article is a continuation of the publication titled Ethnocultural traditions of the Uryankhais of Mongolia : Modern Situation (Based on Field Research)”, published in the “Asia and Africa Today” journal.
Key words: Western Mongolia, expedition, Uryankhais, Khotons, Tuvans

ARCHIVES OF MONGOLIAN STUDIES

S. S. Sabrukova. A history of Mongolian studies in Russia: from the memoirs of G. I. Mikhaylov (1909–1986) — 54
The article is dedicated to the recollections of G. I. Mikhaylov — a 20th c. prominent Russian researcher of Mongolia in which he remembers his teachers and colleagues — B. Ya. Vladimirtsov, G. E. Grum-Grshimailo, A. V. Burdukov, S. A. Kozin, N. N. Poppe and G. N. Rumyantsev and which were discovered in the private collection of N. P. Shastina now kept in the Archives of Orientalists at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Science. G. I. Mikhailov called his memoirs ‘notebooks about the distinguished Russian orientalists’, in them he was also describing the details of his life at that time, his personal opinions and views on various events taking place in the life of his ‘characters’. The memoirs cover the period of more than forty years — from 1926 till 1967. They are written in a vivid captivating language with the use of dialogue.
Key words: B. Ya. Vladimirtsov, G. E. Grum-Grshimailo, A. V. Burdukov, S. A. Kozin, N. N. Poppe. G. N. Rumyantsev

RELATED DISCIPLINES

Y. A. Ioannesyan. Some aspects of similarities and differences between the Shaykhi and Ismaili teachings (based on Persian-language Ismaili sources) — 64
The article presents a comparative analysis of some key concepts in the two teachings of Shi’ah Islam, i.e. Ismailism and the Shaykhi school. These include mainly the notion of the imamat and the “theory of cycles” in the religious history of humanity. The author’s analysis based on various sources: original works of thinkers belonging to the above teachings as well as scholarly studies of his predecessors, leads to the conclusion that despite the seeming similarities between certain Ismaili and Shaykhi concepts and sometimes almost identical terms applied to them in both teachings, there exist significant differences in meaning between them.
Key words: Ismailism, Shaykhi school, Shi’ah teachings, a comparative analysis of religious teachings

D. A. Kostandian. Terminological System of modern Arabic Music — 75
The paper aims at a comprehensive study of the terminological system of modern Arab music. It contains a historiographical note on medieval texts that formed the main lexical corpus of the musical language of Arabs, as well as an analysis of the main terms and concepts used today in the musical practice in the countries of the Near East. In addition, the work explores the degree of mutual influence of Western and Eastern musical terminological systems. On the basis of theoretical treatises of different times, modern textbooks, and manuals on music, the key phenomena of Arab professional music, such as maqām and taqsīm, are examined in the context of musical knowledge and linguistics.
Key words: maqams, oriental modes, al-Farabi, al-Urmawi, Arab music terminology

A. A. Turanskaya, M. A. Kozintcev. Estampages of the Bayanchur inscription kept at the Institute of Oriental manuscripts, RAS — 89
The article presents a brief description of the estampages of the so-called “Selenga Stone”, also known as the monument to Bayanchur, kept at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Central Asia and Siberia Collection, call numbers ЦАС 508–528). Until recently, it was believed that these estampages were made by the Finnish linguist and diplomat Gustaf John Ramstedt who had discovered the stone in 1909. However, the manufacture technique and comparison with other inscription copies preserved in the IOM collection allows to assume that the copies were made by another well-known researcher Władysław Kotwicz. Moreover, the records by G. J. Ramstedt concerning the discovery of the inscription and the initial period of its study indirectly confirm this presumption.
Key words: Old Turkic Runic script, G. J. Ramstedt, W. Kotwicz, Collection of Central Asia and Siberia, Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, RAS

IN MEMORIAM

Mark Isaakovich Golman (07.11.1927–05.09.2021) (by editorial board) — 95

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