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Tibetology in St. Petersburg. Collected papers. Issue 2 / Editorial board: B. B. Badmayev, A. V. Zorin (executive editor), Ch. Ramble, A. A. Sizova (secretary), V. L. Uspensky. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg Centre for Oriental Studies Publishers, 2021. 356 р. + 16 il. ISBN 978-5-85803-572-5


CONTENTS

Foreword (A. V. Zorin) (in Russian) — 7

Foreword (A. V. Zorin) (in English) — 10

Part 1. AT THE SOURCE OF TIBETOLOGY AND BUDDHOLOGY: THE OIRAT HISTORICAL LEGACY, 17TH AND 18TH CENTURIES

A. V. Zorin. The Tibetan manuscripts from Sem Palat preserved in the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, RAS — 14
Appendix. The Catalogue of the Tibetan Manuscripts from Sem Palat. Pt. 1: Set 1 of Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa stong phrag nyi shu lnga pa — 28
This paper examines fragments of two four-volume sets of Tibetan manuscript copies of Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra (The Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in Twenty-Five Thousand Lines) which, apparently, were brought to St. Petersburg from the Oirat monastery known as Sem Palat at the end of the 1710s and then, possibly, during the 1720s (an assumption that some of them could be brought by D. G. Messerschmidt is considered). The manuscripts on blue paper with gold letters found on the Irtysh attracted the attention of Peter the Great, and their acquisition marked the beginning of the collection of Tibetan manuscripts in St. Petersburg. The paper contains a textological and codicological analysis of the available fragments, basic information about them is presented in two tables. The damage inflicted on the leaves of Buddhist books in Russian Siberia before they were sent to St. Petersburg is characterized inter alia. The appendix to the paper contains the first part of the illustrated catalog of the manuscripts under consideration (eighteen fragments of the first set of the Sūtra are presented).
Key words: the first Tibetan manuscripts in Saint Petersburg, Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā, Sem Palat, Oirat cultural legacy, Tibetan codicology and textology

V. P. Zaytsev. Translation from the Tibetan language by the Fourmont brothers (1723) — 75
Appendix. A letter of Abbe J.-P. Bignon to the Russian Tsar Peter the Great dated February 1, 1723 — 126
The formation of Tibetology as an academic discipline is inextricably linked to Russo-French academic contacts, on the one hand, and the attempt by the brothers Étienne and Michel Fourmont to translate a Tibetan text which had become available to Western science in 1722, on the other hand. Although the curious translation by the Fourmont brothers, completed in 1723, was not a success, being objectively impracticable for “Proto-Tibetology” of that time, it nevertheless gave a certain impetus to the development of Tibetan studies, and the problem of translation attracted the interest of many scholars since that time and up to the present day. Despite almost 300 years having passed since the first publication of the translation by the Fourmont brothers, and the subsequent publication of numerous academic works associated with it, there are still a number of blank spots and unresolved issues in this story. This paper deals with the revision of events preceding and relating to the early history of the Fourmont brothers’ translation.
Key words: Fourmont brothers, Étienne Fourmont, Michel Fourmont, Jean-Paul Bignon, Latin-Tibetan dictionary, Domenico da Fano, history of Tibetology, Peter the Great, Johann Daniel Schumacher, Ablai-kit

A. A. Sizova. On the First Attempt at Translating in the History of Tibetan Studies: Fourmont Brothers’ Method — 135
Appendix 1: Russian Translation of the article Nova literaria de msptis codicibus in Tartaria repertis — 156
Appendix 2: Russian Translation of a fragment of G. S. Bayer’s book — 160
Appendix 3: Russian Translation of A. Giorgi’s book — 177
Appendix 4: Russian Translation of a fragment of G. F. Müller’s article
De scriptis Tanguticis in Sibiria repertis commentatio — 184
The paper deals with the famous Tibetan manuscript folio sent in the 18th century to France by Peter the Great for the purpose of translation. The task was completed, but the interpretation of French scholars caused bewilderment among contemporaries. Pursuing the goal of describing this significant episode more fully, the author provides transliteration of the Tibetan text of the folio, translation into Russian and analysis of the work made by the Fourmont brothers with the use of the Latin-Tibetan dictionary compiled by Domenico da Fano.
Key words: history of Tibetan studies, Fourmont brothers, translations, National library of France

V. B. Borodaev. A Folio of the Mongolian “Golden” Kanjur with the Russian Inscriptions dated 1720 Kept in the Linköping City Library — 195
This paper presents an annotated translation of Cyrillic inscriptions found on a Mongolian folio from the “Golden” Kanjur kept in the Linköping City Library (Sweden). It proves that the notes in Russian cursive were made in July 1720 and identifies the person mentioned in them.
The course of events that relate to the discovery of Buddhist monasteries in southern Siberia during the reign of Peter the Great as well as the process of their destruction by the Russian soldiers are considered in historical context of 1714–1721.
The paper states that the Linköping folio was originated from either the Darqan čorǰi-yin keyid (Sem Palat) monastery that used to be found on the shore of the Irtysh or (with a very low probability) some monastery in Mongolia that could be located close to the upper reaches of the Yenisey.
The sequence of the appearance of Buddhist manuscripts from Siberia in St. Petersburg and several countries of Europe from 1718 to the early 1740s is traced. It is argued that the Linköping folio probably belonged to the collection of Ph. Stralenberg, although its connection with some other Swedish captives who left Siberia in 1722–1723 cannot be ruled out.
It is pointed out that the correspondence between Erik Benzelius Jr. and Ph. Stralenberg as well as Th. S. Bayer may bring some promising results that can help clarify the question of the origin of the folio erroneously named Codex Renatus Lincopensis by J. A. Strindberg.
Key words: Buddhist manuscripts, Cyrillic inscriptions, Russian cursive, Linköping, Sem Palat, Darqan čorǰi-yin keyid, Churumal, Ablaikit, Erik Benzelius Jr., J. G. Renat, Ph. I. Strahlenberg, T. S. Bayer

A. A. Turanskaya. Mongolian manuscript fragments from the Oirat monastery Ablaikit preserved in the National Library of France — 246
Book fragments discovered in the Oirat monastery Ablaikit happened to be one of the first Tibetan and Mongolian texts brought to Europe. The bulk of book fragments of the once rich Ablaikit monastery library were brought to St. Petersburg by the participants of the Second Kamchatka Expedition (1733–1743) in 1734. The others are preserved nowadays in various European depositories. The paper deals with four Mongolian manuscript folios stored in the National Library of France under call number Tibétain 464. The paper presents description, identification and transcription of the preserved parts of texts, along with some brief data concerning their acquisition.
Key words: Ablai-kit, Mongolian manuscripts, the National Library of France, Mongolian Kanjur

V. L. Uspensky, N. S. Yakhontova. Eighteenth-Century Letters of Kalmyk Chieftains Kept at the Saint Petersburg University Library — 267
The article introduces unique archival materials concerning the Kalmyks and other peoples of Russia which are kept at present in the Saint Petersburg University Library. These materials were collected and copied by G. S. Lytkin (1835–1907) who stayed in the Kalmyk steppes from 1859 to 1860 and also made research at the archive of the Astrakhan Chamber of state properties. There he copied many Russian translations of letters originally written in the Kalmyk and other Oriental languages which are included into this article. The article is supplemented with facsimiles of three original letters and ten copies of letters in the Kalmyk language. All these letters of Kalmyk chieftains date back to the year 1708. They were mostly written by Ayuka Khan and his elder son Chagdojab and addressed to Russian functionaries of the city of Astrakhan. All published letters are unique and supplement the knowledge of the history of Russia under the reign of Peter the Great.
Key words: the Kalmyks, Ayuka Khan, Astrakhan, letters, Crimea, the Bashkirs

Part 2. IN MEMORY OF V. S. TOLOKNOV (1980–2016)

N. L. Zhukovskaya. Let it be in memory of him, of what he did not have a chance to complete himself — 294

A. V. Zorin. V. S. Toloknov and his study of the Tibetan diaspora in India. The editor’s foreword — 297

V. S. Toloknov. An autobiography — 302

The list of V. S. Toloknov’s publications — 303

V. S. Toloknov. Preservation of Tibetan Ethnic Identity in the Diaspora in India — 305

Authors — 354

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