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Mongolica. Vol. XXIV, 2021, No. 3. Dedicated to the 220th birthday anniversary of Osip Mikhailovich Kovalevsky (1801–1878) / Ed. by I. V. Kulganek (editor-in-chief), D. A. Nosov (secretary), M. A. Kozintcev (deputy secretary) et al. St Petersburg, 2021. 110 p. ISSN 2311-5939.


CONTENTS

RESEARCH ACTIVITIES OF OSIP M. KOVALEVSKY

Yu. V. Kuzmin. Irkutsk mongolist and translator A. V. Igumnov and O. M. Kovalevsky: the origin of researchers’ relationships — 5
The article presents materials on the famous Irkutsk translator A. V. Igumnov, a connoisseur of the Mongolian and Buryat languages, the compiler of the handwritten Mongolian-Russian dictionary and the teacher of Professor O. M. Kovalevsky. A creative biography of A. V. Igumnov and historiography of the study of his heritage in Russia are given. Special attention is paid to the nature of relations between A. V. Igumnov and O. M. Kovalevsky, the role of dictionaries and grammars of the Mongolian language on the scientific creativity of the founder of the first Department of the Mongolian language in Russia. The role of A. V. Igumnov in the formation of the Mongol scholar O. M. Kovalevsky and the compilation of the “Mongolian-Russian-French dictionary” is noted.
Key words: A. V. Igumnov, Mongol studies, O. M. Kovalevsky, biography, dictionarie

S. S. Sabrukova. O. M. Kovalevsky’s letters in the N. P. Shastina archive collection — 11
This article presents the description of archive materials on Osip M. Kovalevsky, which were collected by N. P. Shastina during a long period. They consist mostly of letters addressed to O. M. Kovalevsky and sent by different people in seven languages. When Shastina studied those letters, she considered some of them should be categorized as scientific correspondence. The final purpose of her work was to write a study of O. M. Kovalevsky’s correspondence and publish it together with the original documents and Russian translations. The significant amount of the preparatory work shows a high academic level of research carried out by N. P. Shastina and confirms her expertise in the history of oriental studies in Russia.
Key words: N. P. Shastina, O. M. Kovalevsky, letters, archive, scientific correspondence

STUDIES IN MONGOLIAN PHILOLOGY

T. G. Basangova (Bordzhanova). Cult of Buddha Maitreya among the Kalmyks (based on materials from folklore sources) — 17
Since ancient times, Buddha Maitreya has been one of the most revered and popular characters in the Buddhist pantheon among Kalmyks. The article is devoted to the reflection of the cult of this Buddha in folklore works written down from the lips of different storytellers at the end of the last century.
Key words: Buddha Maitreya, Buddhism in Kalmykia, folklore tradition of the Kalmyks, storytellers, oral prose, legends, texts

B. A. Bicheev. Oirat texts of the sangs of the White Old Man — 22
One of the richest ritualistic, textual and iconographic traditions is associated with the cult figure of the White Old Man. Its popularity and significance makes it a remarkable phenomenon in the religious and spiritual culture of Mongolians. In terms of the textual tradition related to the worship, two types of texts are differentiated: pseudo-Buddhist sutras and the texts of sang-prayers. The latter are read while offerings are made on the obo sites to numerous supernatural spirits of landscapes, hosts of local places. The interest of modern researchers in the textual corpus associated with the practice has been growing, as evidenced by numerous works devoted to the phenomenon. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the Oirat texts of sang-prayers, that are preserved in private collections in Western Mongolia and Xinjiang. The Oirat manuscripts are of special interest as illustrative of the regional tradition of the White Old Man worship, but also in terms of the textual tradition studies.
Key words: Worship of the White Old Man; Mongolian Sang texts; structure of texts; Oirat Sang texts

E. Vandan. The semantics of eternity in the novel “Crime and Punishment” and in its Mongolian translation — 33
The article analyzes the poetics of eternity in the novel by F. M. Dostoevsky's “Crime and Punishment”, as well as the ways of its reproduction in the Mongolian translation presented by Ts. Gombosuren in 2003. A great deal of attention is paid to identifying the semantic features of eternity in the original text and its transformations in the Mongolian version, as well as the specifics of translation strategies. The relevance of this work is associated, on the one hand, with the increased interest of researchers in the problem of intercultural communication and issues of linguistic and cultural interaction in literary translation, and on the other hand, with the fact that at present, the study of the literary relationship between Russia and Mongolia in general and translations of the Russian classical prose (including Dostoevsky's texts) in particular, does not receive the attention it deserves in scientific research.
Key words: poetics of Dostoevsky, “Crime and Punishment”, semantics of eternity, literary translation, Mongolian translation, intercultural communication

M. P. Petrova. Reflection of Mongolian History in the early 20th century in the Novel by G. Ayurzana “Sacred Hangay’s Secrets” — 41
The article discusses the novel “Sacred Hangay’s Secrets” (“Cахиуст Хангайн нууц”, 2017), written by the famous Mongolian author G. Ayurzana in the style of magical realism. Modern writer G. Ayurzana (born 1970) is known to a wide readership for his novels “Mirage” (“Илбэ зэрэглээ”, 2003), “Ten Dreams Long” (“Арван зүүдний ɵр”, 2005), “Born by Echoes” (“Цуурайнаас тɵрɵгсɵд”, 2007), which became a model of postmodern prose in recent Mongolian literature. Turning from postmodernism to realistic method, G. Ayurzana publishes his novels “Shaman “s Legend” (“Бɵɵгийн домог”, 2010), “Shugden” (“Шүгдэн”, 2012), “White, Black, Red” (“Цагаан, хар, улаан”, 2014) “Pulsation” (“Судасны чимээ”, 2015), which examines the important sociocultural problems of modern society. In the novel “Sacred Hangay’s Secrets”, routine and everyday are combined with the fantastic and magical, mythopoetic consciousness of the characters determines the surrounding reality. Magic, magical, mystery, mysterious — one of the key concepts of the work. Based on the author’s statements and analysis of the novel text, the article draws conclusions about the reasons for G. Ayurzana’s appeal to the magic realism method. These results are important for understanding main tendencies of the development of Modern Mongolian literature.
Key words: magical realism, modern Mongolian literature, G. Ayurzana, “Sacred Hangay’s Secrets”

STUDIES IN HISTORY OF CENTRAL ASIA

P. I. Butsyk. A study of the search for Dalai Lama VIII Jampel Gyatso (based on Tibetan, Manchu and Chinese written sources) — 46
This paper addresses the process of searching for the Eighth Dalai Lama, Jampel Gyatsho, which took place between 1757 and 1762. The purpose of the present research is to describe in detail the consecutive events which took place in these years on the basis of the evidence found in historical sources written in Tibetan, Manchu and Chinese. Using sources in these three languages was instrumental in reconstructing the events and understanding their implicit logic. The search process was not free of problems and tensions and required joint efforts of Tibetan ruling elite and Imperial envoys specially dispatched by the Qianlong Emperor. The search of the Dalai Lama resulted in success, and the child was enthroned in the Potala Palace in 1762. This was for the first time in Tibetan history that the transition from one incarnation of Dalai Lama to another was comparatively smooth and peaceful.
Key words: the history of Tibet, the Eighth Dalai Lama, Qianlong Emperor, Tibetan Buddhism, incarnated lama

Yu. I. Elikhina. Buddhist objects from the collection of V.A. Kazakevich, stored at The Hermitage Museum — 58
The article describes the collecting activity of V. A. Kazakevich (1896–1937), a well-known orientalist. His collections, which he brought from Buryatia in 1934, were transferred to the State Hermitage. Among them there are archaeological finds, which are excavated from excavations of burials of different periods. In addition, among the items there are materials originating from the Kondui settlement of the XIV century. Some of the exhibits can be attributed to ethnographic collections. The ethnographic part of the collection includes three Buddhist miniatures in the Museum's collection. They depict various Buddhist deities painted by Buryat artists of the early 20th century. Such works are typical examples of Buryat painting of this time. The report on this topic was read at the IX Tibetological Readings at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences on December the 10th, 2020.
Key words: V. A. Kazakevich, Buddhist painting, Buryatia, collections

I. M. Zakharova. Captain of the General Staff Yu. A. Sosnovsky — the head of the “Scientific and trade” expedition to China in 1874–1875 — 63
The article deals with the goals, objectives and results of the organized by the Russian government in 1874– 1875 “Scientific and trade” expedition to China. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the head of the expedition, Captain of the General Staff, geodesist Yu. A. Sosnovsky. Despite the fact that Sosnovsky was awarded the Order of St. Stanislaus, 2nd degree, and was accepted as a member of the Imp. Russian Geographical Society following the expedition, the results of its activities were assessed by contemporaries ambiguously. The conflict arisen between Yu. A. Sosnovsky and a member of the expedition, artist P. Ya. Pyasetsky, led to extensive controversy in the periodicals, waged by opponents among themselves. Mutual accusations led to a deterioration in the reputation of both scientists and prevented the implementation of their intentions to organize other scientific expeditions in the future.
Key words: Yu. A. Sosnovsky, scientific and trade expedition to China in 1874–1875, P. Ya. Pyasetsky, A. E. Boyarsky, Russian-Chinese trade, Russian-Chinese relations

I. A. Suzdaltsev. The countries of Central Asia in the politics of the Comintern and the magazine “Communist International” in 1920 — 72
The article analyzes the policy of the Comintern, an international organization that united communist parties around the world in 1919–1943. regarding the implementation of plans for armed seizures of power in the countries of Central Asia in 1920. The article analyzes the literature, journalistic materials and organizational documents of the Comintern, the author seeks to trace the features of the views of the leaders of the Comintern in 1920 regarding the revolution in the countries of the East. The use of publications in the journal “Communist International” allows us to conclude that even despite the significant attention of the leaders of the Comintern to the countries of the East, in 1920 the coming to power of the Communists there was not possible, which is also stated by the representatives of Asian states.
Key words: II Congress of the Comintern, Eastern Department of the ECCI, Turkestan Bureau of the ECCI, the First Congress of the Peoples of the East

T. Yu. Feklova. “Observations of this station will be useful for science”: Magneto-meteorological station in Urga in the second half of the XIX century — 79
Second half of the XIX century was the time for the new scientific disciplines developing, such as the meteorology and the Earth magnetism, with the own methods and tools. In Russian Empire and out the country was opened a lot of magneto-meteorological stations and observatories. The article based on the numerous archive materials from the Saint-Petersburg Branch of the Archive of the Academy of sciences and the library of the Main Geophysical Observatory named after A. I. Voeikov. The article analyzes the history of establishing of a magneto-meteorological station in Urga (modern Ulaanbaatar) and its research work. This station was under the control of the Beijing magneto-meteorological observatory Russian Academy of sciences. The methodological basis for the work was the problem-chronological method and the method of archival heuristics. Key word: Urga, Beijing, magneto-meteorological station, H. A. Fritsche, G. A. Mosin

Sh. Ts. Tsydene. Administrative and economic activities of local self-government bodies of the Buryats in Soviet historiography (1920s–1930s) — 84
The article deals with the works of Soviet historians, which were published in the first period of Soviet historiography from the 1920s to the late 1930s on the topic: Administrative and economic activities of self-government bodies of Buryats. The purpose of the article is to determine the specifics of the formation of the topic within the period. The article sets the following tasks: to characterize the source base of research; to determine the role of the topic in the development of historical science in the history of Buryatia, to determine the specifics of the historiographical period. Conclusions. As a result of the analysis of the research, a qualitative advance in source study was noticed, historians of Buryatia introduced a set of documents from the funds of the Steppe Dumas into scientific circulation, a course was determined for further work with documents in the old Buryat script, and, in general, a direction was outlined for deepening knowledge about internal processes among the Buryats. as well as their own view of their past. The topic has become the subject of a special study of historians, in the context of the approval of the Marxist historical concept in the history of Buryatia. This ensured the attention of scientists to the structure and activities of self-government bodies. The personnel was designed as the ruling class — noyonstvo, and activities based on administrative and economic competencies as exploitative. These views on local self-government bodies were formed in conditions of freedom in the interpretation of sources, the absence of a generalizing and generally accepted view of the history of Buryatia, and the presence of pluralism of opinions in academic community. Which provided a variety of studies. By the end of the period, there was a tendency to generalize views on the history of Buryatia, along with the rejection of opinions that contradict official science.
Key words: self-government, noyonstvo, social stratification, the feudal system, exploitation

RELATED DISCIPLINES

I. A. Alimov. Bureaucracy in Motion: Chinese Travel Diaries of the X–XIII centuries. (I) — 93
The article is the first one in a series devoted to the travel diaries of Chinese officials of the 10th–13th centuries. One of the phenomena of traditional Chinese bureaucracy was that an ordinary official changed many positions during his career, and the path from one to another often took a very long time. On the way, many officials kept diaries, recording various details of local life. Nowadays, such records are of great historical and ethnographic value. The same applies to travel diaries kept by ambassadors and members of embassies sent to neighboring state entities. This series of articles is designed to acquaint the Russian reader with a number of Chinese travel diaries of the Song era, this article examines two of them — Cheng yao lu and Lan pei lu.
Key words: China of X–XIII centuries, the Song Era, travel diaries, traditional Chinese officials, the Liao and Jin Empires

S. L. Burmistrov. Buddhist Ideas in Gauḍapāda’s Philosophy — 102
The influence of Buddhist philosophy on early Vedānta can be traced in the works of Gauḍapāda (8th century), especially in the terminology and in the theory of causality. Both in Gauḍapāda’s “Māṇḍukya-kārikās” and in Mahāyāna Buddhist philosophy causality is treated as a result of illusory dualism of cause and effect, and the true reality (different from the empirical reality) is impersonal. Speaking of it, Gauḍapāda uses the terms “nirvāṇa” and “dharma” in the sense, in which they are used in Buddhist philosophical texts. This indicates the influence of Mahāyāna Buddhism on the formation of early Vedānta.
Key words: Buddhist influence on Vedānta, early Vedānta, Gauḍapāda, Yogācāra, Madhyamaka

REVIEWS

B. Dajrijmaa. Regular seminar in the field of oral literature of the Institute of Linguistics of the

Mongolian Academy of Sciences — 107

I. V. Kulganek. The 5th International Conference “Cultural Heritage of the Mongols: Manuscript and Archival Collections” — 108

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Kowalewski, Józef

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