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Mongolica. Vol. XXIV, 2021, No. 2. Dedicated to the 90th anniversary of Bronislav Ivanovich Kuznetsov (1931–1985) / Ed. by I. V. Kulganek (editor-in-chief), D. A. Nosov (secretary), M. A. Kozintcev (deputy secretary) et al. Executive editor of the issue — B. M. Narmaev. St Petersburg, 2021. 110 p. ISSN 2311-5939.


CONTENTS

B. M. Narmаev. B. I. Kuznetsov — the founder of the national post-war Tibetology — 5
The article is devoted to a brief overview of life and scientific and teaching activities of the associate professor of the Faculty of Oriental Studies of the Leningrad State University B. I. Kuznetsov (1931–1985). Associate Professor B. I. Kuznetsov had to restore in the most difficult conditions, starting from mid-1950s, teaching and researching the Tibetan language, literature and other Tibetan disciplines at the university. His efforts were not in vain, Russian Tibetology takes its rightful place in science and culture. A list of B. I. Kuznetsov’s major publications is attached to the article.
Key words: Tibet, Tibetology, Faculty of Oriental Studies, B. I. Kuznetsov, Buddhism, Bon

E. B. Kuznetsova. About Our Family — 10
Daughter of a famous Tibetologist, associate professor of the Faculty of Oriental Studies of Leningrad State University B. I. Kuznetsov (1931–1985), Elizaveta B. Kuznetsova, shares her memories of her father, parental family. Among of the topics covered — the lifestyle of the family of the professor of the University in the postwar Leningrad, methods of upbringing in the family, relationships with colleagues and students, about personal courage and attitude towards religion. A number of family photos are being published for the first time.
Key words: B. I. Kuznetsov, Leningrad State University, Faculty of Oriental Studies, Tibetan Philology

S.-Kh. D. Syrtypova. The creative heritage of B. I. Kuznetsov or Looking for Persian footprints in the Tibetan-Mongolian Buddhism — 15
The article examines the main directions and scientific hypotheses by B. I. Kuznetsov, the famous Russian Tibetologist and a teacher of several generations of orientalists in the post-Soviet countries. One of the main ideas driving his scientific research was the investigation of origin and development of the pre-Buddhist Bon religion of Tibetans, the search for Iranian roots and parallels in historical subjects which were described by ancient Greek, Tibetan, Arabian, Chinese and other authors. He identified Bon religion and it’s homeland Shang Shung and Olmo with Elam or ancient Iran of the Achaemenids reign, and the chief Bon priest, teacher Shenrab Mibo considered as a Zoroastrian preacher. Such kind of pointing the question could have taken place according the 7th–5th centuries BC, when the Iranians were at the peak of their power and pursued an active policy of influence expanding, and not only on the nearest neighbors, but on the territory of Central Asia. The article offers an analysis of some of the positions put forward by B. I. Kuznetsov, using typological materials that preserve archaic autochthonous elements, in particular the multifaceted cults of Pekhar, Dalha, Namsaray in comparison with the Zoroastrian cult of Mithra. The events of the Achaemenid era chronologically coincide with the era of the Scythians and the dating of outstanding objects of Scythian applied art, the influence of which was not escaped by any subsequent culture of Eurasia. For the peoples of Central Asia, Mongolia and Tibet, the heritage of the Scythian-Siberian animal style is most relevant. Mongols and Tuvans, nomads who adopted Tibetan Buddhism, continue to be active heirs of the traditions of applied arts of the South Siberian Scythians.
Key words: Tibet, Bon, Shenrab, Pekhar, Scythian-Siberian animal style, nomads

DISCIPLES ABOUT THE TEACHER

M. V. Mongush. The teacher who opened Shambhala for me (Memories of one lecture by B. I. Kuznetsov) — 26

A. A. Terentyev. Some words about Bronislav Ivanovich Kuznetsov — 29

A. S. Dongak. The Mentor and the Person — 31

STUDIES IN HISTORY

E. D. Ogneva. Tanka as Text: Experience of Reading the Eight Stūpas Plot — 33
The article is devoted to the plot of “Eight Stupas” on the tanka from the Museum of Arts named after Bogdan and Varvara Khanenko (ЖВ 537, Kiev, Ukraine). The best days and decline of Tantric Buddhism in India dates back to the X–XIII centuries. During this period, the revival of Buddhism took place in Tibet. Almost at the same time, Tibetan translations of texts on this subject appear, Tibetan authors write works on the same subject, images are created in monumental and easel painting. Unlike monumental murals Tanka's small space accumulates vast knowledge, revealing to each believer, to the extent of his understanding, various information. This information reflects different levels of content that are not always perusal. Composition, pantheon characters, canonical symbolism of color, and the palette of a master performer can be thе keys to reading a tanka. Tanka from the Khanenko Museum presents a new content of the familiar plot in the Vajrayana traditions, which were spread and further developed in the sacred easel art of Tibet, Mongolia, and Buryatia. Key word: Kuznetsov eight Stupas, Buddha Shakyamuni, vajrayana, composition

K. V. Orlova. “Buddhism captures the heart, lights the soul…” — 42
The article is devoted to outstanding Kalmyk lamas, their educational and social activities. Thanks to their efforts, various works appear, such as travel descriptions, translations of philosophical and medical treatises, and their own works in the Kalmyk old language. The base of the two higher religious schools in Kalmykia and the only one among the Don Kalmyks were allowed to receive an education of the ordinary clergy.
Key words: Kalmyks, Buddhism, clergy, tsanit tchore

T. D. Skrynnikova. Semantics of the Yarlung toponym — 45
The first Tibetan dynasty was called Yarlung according to the locality, where the first Tibetan state was formed (7–9 centuries). I think it possible to interpret the toponym Yarlung as “Sun place/land”, where the second part of the word (-lung) means “place, territory”, and the first — yar — is connected the with Indo-European root yar- (= Sun). (Y)ir marks the sun in vakhan’s language and yor — in dardian one. The correlation of the dynasty with Sun is, in my mind, reaffirmed with the fact, that Tibetan rulers from this dynasty were born with a symbol of swastika on the body.
Key words: Tibet, Yarlung dynasty, Sun, the area of old-iranian languages

D. B. Stronach. Pasargadae, Navel of the World (Translated into Russian by B. M. Narmaev) — 48
The Achaemenian capital at Pasargadae was more than just the centre of the empire of Cyrus the Great; it was regarded as the focal point of the civilized world even by the peoples living beyond the fringes of the Achaemenian Empire. This fact is illustrated by a map discovered in a Tibetan dictionary. In this article the author discusses the significance of the map and how it found its way to distant Tibet.
Key words: Pasargadae, Achaemenids, Iran, B. I. Kuznetsov, Tibet, ancient map of the world, Zhang-zhung, Mithraism

V. L. Uspensky. About Agvang Dorjiev’s cancelled mission to Tibet in 1928 — 52
Despite its antireligious policy the new Soviet leadership demonstrated interest towards Tibet during the years which followed the Russian revolution in 1917. In 1927–1928 it planned to send to Tibet a delegation of Soviet Buddhists headed by Agvang Dorjiev, who had the status of the Tibetan envoy. He made attempts to come to terms with the Soviet government and also became the leader of the “renovationist movement” which was loyal to the Soviet power and promulgated the need for the Buddhist clergy to abandon worldly aims and to return to simple living according to ancient Buddhist rules. The new mission should have been staffed by the “renovationists”. However, the mission to Tibet was cancelled despite the fact that the preparations were in the full sway. There exists a letter which was supposed to be handed to the Dalai Lama XIII. It was written in Tibetan and Mongolian and was printed in Leningrad. Russian translation of this letter is found in this article.
Key words: Tibet, Russia, Buddhism, Agvang Dorjiev

STUDIES IN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

B. L. Mitruev. Oirat text of “Tusa bütēqsen xan köbüün tuuji” — 58
Introduction. Among the many works of Oirat literature, there is a small text that relates one of the episodes of the Buddha’s life. This text cannot be attributed to didactic Buddhist teachings or to the category containing the complete biography of the Buddha, however, despite this, the text is interesting for its lyrical component and the fact that it demonstrates a plot connection with the famous biographies of the Buddha. Purpose of the article. The purpose is to introduce into scientific circulation the text of the Oirat manuscript copy of the history of Prince Siddhartha’s renunciation from the world and its translation into Russian. This manuscript copy differs from other hitherto known copies and will help to clarify the ambiguities encountered in the other copies of this text. Materials. The research is based on a copy of the manuscript of the Oirat text “Tusa bütēqsen xan köbüün tuuji orošiboi” from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Results. The result of this study is the hypothesis that the Oirat text is an adaptation from Mongolian, which in turn is a translation from the Tibetan language. Similarity was found between the sequence of events described in the Oirat text and the sequence of events in Lalitavistara.
Key words: Siddhartha, Buddhism, Todo Bichig

R. P. Sumba. Educational Literature on philosophy in Tibetan language from the fund of National museum of Tuva Republic — 71
Buddhism was recognized as the official religion of tuvans in the 18th century, which was marked by the construction of monasteries. There were 26 Buddhist monasteries in the territory of Tuva, which were centers of education and culture, where they traditionally studied the grammar of the Tibetan language, iconography, and Buddhist philosophy in the beginning of the XX century. Significant collections of woodcuts used for printing books and reproducing images of deities and collection of manuscripts and woodcuts in Tibetan and Mongolian languages are keeping in the National museum. Large Buddhist monasteries of Tuva had rich libraries, workshops for the production of Buddhist sculpture and painting.
The changes which was began in the 1930s, led to the destruction of all Buddhist monasteries and the loss of monastic tradition. Some of the libraries from the closed and looted monasteries were transferred to the National museum of Tuva. We can judge the level of spiritual education, where studied the traditional disciplines of the Gelugpa tradition, from the Tibetan manuscripts. The collections of manuscripts in the Tibetan language on logic are keeping in the funds of the museum.
Classification and analysis of the collected material on the texts of philosophical education in the Buddhist monasteries of Tuva, which are preserved in the National Museum of Tuva Republic are researched in this article.
Key words: Tuva, National museum, manuscript in Tibetan language, Buddhist philosophy

A. A. Turanskaya. Photographs of Old Uyghur documents in the IOM, RAS collection — 75
Preserved separately, the Photo collection of the IOM, RAS includes several thousand photocopies of Oriental books and manuscript fragments in various languages and scripts, along with photos taken during multiple expeditions of the Russian travelers to Asian countries. The Old Uyghur part of the collection is represented by various materials kept under call numbers ФА and ФВ. It is known that part of the Old Uyghur photocopies was transferred to the Asiatic Museum in the 1920s. The article sought to present a brief description of the preserved documents, as also some data on the provenance.
Key words: Old Uyghur texts, manuscript fragments, Old Uyghur language, Photo Collection of Old Uyghur manuscripts, Turfan collection in Berlin, Serindia collection in the IOM, RAS

THE ARCHIVES OF ORIENTALISTS

S. Yu. Belenky, M. I. Tubiansky. About the Problem of Tibetan Medicine Studying. Foreword, re-edition, commentaries and appendix by T. V. Ermakova and E. P. Ostrovskaya — 87
This is the republication of the article written by Mikhail Izrailevich Tubiansky (1893–1937), fellow of the Russian school of Buddhist studies, in collaboration with S. Yu. Belenky (1893–1973), the representative of Soviet Ministry of Public Health, in Mongolia. The main interest of the article is that it treats a set of problems associated with the discussion on the status of Tibetan medicine in the USSR during years 1930–1940. The article presents a critical survey of scientific opinions on Tibetan medicine, an essay on its history going back to Indian natural sciences, and the description of basic written sources on Indian and Tibetan medicine. The authors show that Tibetan medicine as a system of knowledge typologically different from European medical science deserves detail analysis, and think necessary to resort to help of competent representatives of the tradition. The basis of the present publication is: Tubiansky M. I., Belenky S. Yu. On the problem of studying Tibetan medicine // Contemporary Mongolia. 1935. No. 3. P. 59–84.
Key words: Mongolia, Mongolian People’s Republic, Tibetan medicine, M. I. Tubiansky, S. Yu. Belenky, discussion on the status of Tibetan medicine in the USSR

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Kuznetsov, Bronislav Ivanovich

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