Mongolica. Vol. XXIV, 2021, No. 1. Dedicated to the 110-th anniversary of the national
liberation revolution in Mongolia / Ed. by I.V.Kulganek (editor-in-chief), D. A. Nosov (secretary), M. A. Kozintcev (deputy secretary) et al. St Petersburg, 2021. 104 p. ISSN 2311-5939.
V. V. Grayivoronsky. To the 110-th anniversary of the national liberation revolution in Mongolia in 1911 — 5
The year 2021 in the history of Mongolia and Russian-Mongolian relations is rich in anniversaries: The 100th
anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Soviet Russia and Mongolia, the 110th anniversary
of the national liberation revolution of Mongolia in 1911; the 100th anniversary of the Mongolian people’s
national democratic revolution of 1921, the 100th anniversary of the formation of the Mongolian people’s party,
100th anniversary of Mongolian people’s revolutionary army, the 100th anniversary of the creation of the Scientific
Committee of Mongolia — the prototype of the modern Academy of Sciences of Mongolia and the 40th anniversary
of joint space flight Soviet cosmonaut V. A. Dzhanibekov and Mongolian cosmonaut J. Gurragchaa (1981),
etc. The author of the article shares some of his thoughts on the 110th anniversary of the historical events in Mongolia,
which in modern historiography are considered as the national liberation revolution.
Key words: Mongolia, national liberation revolution, 1911, Jebzundamba-khutukta VIII, Qing Empire
Urangua J. Tserenchimid: The First Minister of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Mongolia and the Russian-Mongolian negotiations in 1912 — 12
The Mongolian National Revolution of 1911, led by the highest nobility of Khalkha, put an end to the twocentury
dependence of Outer Mongolia on the Qing Empire. As a result, an independent state was founded, headed
by the theocratic monarch VIII Bogd-Khaan.
Tsarist Russians, being interested in the creation of a buffer state on the border with China, supported Mongolia.
Russia was in favor of China’s granting broad autonomy to Outer Mongolia. The new Republican Government
of China did not want to recognize the independence of Mongolia at all and intended, if possible, to establish
sovereignty over Mongolia, since they considered themselves to be the heirs of the Qing Dynasty.
However, what exactly did the Mongols themselves want?
The article raises questions about the political activities of Da Lama Tserenchimed, who was the first Minister
of Internal Affairs of the Mongolian state in between 1911–1913. During the negotiations between Tsarist Russia
and Mongolia, G. Tserenchimid stood firmly for the complete independence of the Outer Mongolians and for the
unification of all Mongolian lands. Also, the article touches upon the issues of Russian-Mongolian relations in
those difficult days of the restoration for their statehood.
Key words: Mongolians, lama, sovereignty, agreements, nationalist
STUDIES IN HISTORY
E. V. Asalkhanova. The System of the Temple Decoration in the Northern Buddhism — 17
The article is dedicated to the analysis of decoration in the temples of northern Buddhism. The article deals
with the problem of the decorating of a Buddhist temple. The features of the system of decoration of some of the
temples of Tibet, Mongolia and Buryatia are discussed. The article’s conclusion is about a necessity of preservation
of culture traditions and their development in contemporary art. The material has relevance and can be used
for constructing of modern buddhist temples.
Key words: Tibet, Mongolia, Buryatia, Buddhism, thang-ka painting, murals, tradition, philosophy
A. Z. Balzhurova. The Development of the genre system of the Buryat Buddhist thang-ka in the second half of the XIX century (based on the collection of the National Museum of the Republic of Buryatia) — 21
Buryat Buddhist painting began to form in the second half of the XVIII century. By the second half of the
XIX century, there was a transition from early original art to a more professional one. One of the characteristic
features of the formation of professional Buddhist painting of this period is the growth of performance skills, the
complexity of the compositional construction of the thang-ka, the development of a genre system that reflects the
full Pantheon of deities of Buryat Buddhism, which includes all eight main sections. The article deals with the
group of the thang-ka with a new iconographic images and stories, stylistic features that characterize this period.
Key words: thang-ka, Buddhism, art, Pantheon, genre, collection
S. G. Batyreva. “Dzhangariada” by V. A. Favorsky in the history of fine art of Kalmykia in the 1930s and 1940s XX century — 26
The art of Kalmykia, considered as a part of the pre-war culture of the 1930s — early 1940s. is slightly
studied. It is perceived as a unique phenomenon, preserving at the initial stage of formation artistic traditions —
graphic and oral folk art. The development of the epic heritage by expressive means of domestic book graphics is
the subject of the research. Aim and tasks: analysis of the Kalmyk period of creative life of the outstanding master
V. A. Favorsky, associated with the decoration of the heroic epic “Dzhangar”. The material of study is the art-edition
of “Dzhangar” (1940), prepared for the 500th anniversary of the Kalmyk folk epos, as well as works by
V. A. Favorsky created in Kalmykia in the 1939–1940s. The methodology for the study of the art of book
illustration is expressed in a culturological approach that explains the development of the artistic process in social
relations “culture — personality — art”. In the analysis of art, it is important to rely on a fundamental understanding
of culture as a way of being of a person, art as a “figurative model” and “self-awareness” of culture. The analysis
of the artistic process of book illustration in the relationship of the epic, artist and traditions is implemented
in the synthesis of methods of history, art history, cultural studies. They caused a complex interdisciplinary study
of the experience of V. A. Favorsky in arranging the artistic traditions of Kalmykia (epic heritage, folk arts and
crafts and compositional foundations of old Kalmyk art) in the field of book illustration.
Key words: Kalmykya, “Dzhangar” epics, V. A. Favorsky, art, graphics, traditions
I. R. Garry. Ngaba Holy place: based on the 2017 expedition materials — 38
The article presents the results of the 2017 expedition to the Ngaba-Qiang Tibetan Autonomous Region of Shichuan
province. The description of the capital of the district POS. Barkam, the County seat of the village. Ngaba,
the Bon monasteries of Barkam and Nanchik Gonpa, Kirti-Gonpa of the gelukpa school and Satenling Gonpa of
the jonangpa school, describes the religious situation in the district.
Key words: Ngaba Qiang — Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Shichuan province, Bon, Kirti-Gonpa:
Yu. I. Elikhina. Findings from Khirkhirinsky settlement in the Hermitage collection — 47
The author describes artifacts from the Khirkhirinsky settlement found by the archaeological expedition of
S. V. Kiselev in 1959. The Settlement was a military-administrative, trade and craft center. The finds are mass
material and are tiles and ceramics.
Key words: archaeology, Mongolian settlement, tiling, and ceramics
R. Yu. Pochekaev. Judicial proceeding in the Zunghar Khanate with the participation of foreigners (based on the notes of I. S. Unkovskiy) — 51
The article is an analysis of the report of Ivan Unkovskiy, the ambassador of the Russian Empire in the Zunghar
Khanate in 1722–1723 devoted to the Oyrat trial with the participation of members of the Russian embassy.
This text allows author to reconstruct the basic elements of the judicial proceeding in the Zunghar Khanate including
its stages, status of participants, methods of gathering and evaluation of evidences, etc. This case also gives
an opportunity for the comparative legal analysis of specific case and rules of court proceeding in the Oyrat law,
especially in the code of laws Ikh Tsaaz (“Great Code”) of 1640 and two edicts of Galdan Boshughtu Khan of
1670s which supplemented it. Besides that, the specific feature of this case is a participation of foreigners in the
trial. It allows to clarify the reasons of privileged status of Russian participants in contrast to less capable one of
foreign subjects who also were under trial in the Zunghar Khanate.
Key words: Russian Empire, Zunghar Khanate, travelers’ notes, traditional law, court and proceedings
STUDIES IN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
K. V. Alekseev. On the Topos of Military Campaign in the Erdeni Tunumal — 58
The text of the 17th century Mongolian chronicle Erdeni Tunumal contains a number of clichéd descriptions
of military campaigns waged by Altan Khan and his closest descendants. These episodes have similar semantics
and a relatively stable structure, and can be classified as topoi. The core of such topoi is formed by singular verbs
in a specific position and traditional formulas. The semantic framework they form is “built on” with pragmatic or
legendary details that make up the periphery of topoi.
Key words: Erdeni tunumal, Altan Khan, Mongolian literature, topos, formula
I. A. Alimov. Notes on Xiaoshuo Prose: “Xu shi shuo” — 67
The article is part of a large ongoing study under the general title “A Concise History of the 1–13th Century
Chinese Xiaoshuo Prose”. It is devoted to xiaoshuo collection named “Xu shi shuo” (續世說 “Continuing of
Stories Circulating in the World”) by Kong Ping-zhong (孔平仲 1044–1111). For the first time in Russian, the
article discusses the history of the creation of the text of this collection, analyzes its composition, examines the issue of being, starting with the first editions and ending with modern ones, analyzes the composition and themes
of the collection.
Key words: China, chinese literature, chinese xiaosho prose, textology, “Xu shi shuo”
O. K. Bavaeva. Analysis of a poem by D. N. Kugultinov — 74
The article studies the poem by prominent Kalmyk poet David Kugultinov. The paper aims to show the beauty
and variety of the Kalmyk language in general and the poetry by the writer in particular. Morphological, stylistic
analyses have revealed that the author uses traditional Kalmyk means of versification as well as those that are
characteristic of Russian and European poetry. Traditional anaphoric rhyming along with the means of syllabicaccentual
prosody is characteristic of the poem; for e. g. a trimetric iamb which sometimes alternates with a
trochee. As for stylistic devices, the poem is rich in comparisons, metaphors, personifications along with phonetic
stylistic means like onomatopoeia and repetition. Philosophical and psychological depth of the poem along with
elaborate use of poetic literary means makes the harmonious unity of the poem.
Key words: David Kugultinov, Kalmyk poet, trimetric iamb, trochee, onomatopoeia
A. V. Zorin. The Rabbit of “A Tibetan Tale” by A. M. Remizov and His Tibetan Prototypes — 79
The history of A. M. Remizov’s cycle “Yö. A Tibetan Tale” written in 1916, on the basis of six Tibetan folk
tales borrowed from the publication by G. N. Potanin, and published twice during the author’s life as separate
pamphlets (Chita 1921 and Berlin 1922) was described in the monograph by I. F. Danilova who also presented her
interpretation of the cycle [Danilova, 2010: 164–172]. This paper contains a different interpretation that does not
deny the former one but rather extends it. Thus, the ambivalent image of the rabbit (or hare) in Remizov’s cycle is
more fully developed with use of some Tibetological data and a parallel is drawn between it and that of another
popular Tibetan folk trixter, Akhu Tönpa (A khu ston pa).
Key words: A. M. Remizov, Yo. A Tibetan Tale, G. N. Potanin, Tibetan folk tales, the image of the hare.
B. V. Menyaev, B. Kh. Borlykova. From the history of the recording of the Sart-Kalmyk version of epic “Jangar” — 85
The article considers the history of the recording of the Sart-Kalmyk version of the “Dzhangar” epic, basing
on archival materials. Folklore recordings, made by A.V. Burdukov and A.Sh. Kichikov are valuable sources for
the study of oral folk art of the Sart-Kalmyks of Kyrgyzstan in the XX century.
Key words: Sart-Kalmyks, Kyrgyzstan, folklore, Dzhangar, motives, archival materials, magnetic tapes,
delets of Xinjiang, Kalmyks, A. V. Burdukov, A. Sh. Kichikov
Issues on Kalmyk folklore studies. Comp. by T. G. Basangova (Borjanova) — 94
Second readings dedicated to O. M. Kovalevsky (by I. V. Kulganek) — 98
history of Mongolia
the Mongolian National Revolution
Random news: Announcements
On November 18, 2020, the conference Sources on Ainu History: Research and Preservation Issues will be held in the IOM RAS.