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Mongolica. Vol. XXII, 2019, No. 2. Dedicated to the 70-anniversary of Russian mongolist, D. S. (Philology), Irina Vladimirovna Kulganek / Ed. by I.V.Kulganek (editor-in-chief), D. A. Nosov (secretary) et al. St Petersburg, 2019. 104 p. ISSN 2311-5939.


And let the flame not go out (by L.G. Skorodumova) — 6

The journey for chants to Mongolian world (by L.S. Dampilova) — 17

Bibliography of the main research works of I. V. Kulganek — 23


D. D. Amogolonova. The State and the Orthodox Church in the Buryat spiritual space in late imperial Russia — 31
The paper deals with the situation of strengthening criticism on the side of the Orthodox Church against both the Buddhist clergy and the Russian state authorities in Siberia beginning from the second half of the 19th century and to the end of the Empire. The contradictions between the state and the Orthodox policy consisted in the difference of interests insofar as the government aimed at Russia’s concerns on the east of the Empire, while the Orthodox Church saw its task in suppressing of Buddhist influence by means of religious homogenization of Siberian natives with ethnic Russians.
Key words: Buddhism, Orthodoxy, Buryats, Russian Empire, Christianization, Russification, identity

Ch. Batdorzh. Three Russian students who worked at the Mongolian Scientific Committee from 1923 to 1926 — 41
In the summer of 1923, three students from the Petrograd Institute of Living Oriental Languages (more widely known as Leningrad Institute of Orient) arrived in Mongolia. V. A. Kazakevitch, N. N. Babynin and A. V. Petrov, being guided by prominent Russian mongolists — V. L. Kotwicz and B. Ya. Vladimirtsov, were to do internship at the Mongolian Scientiific Committee. Among these three V. A. Kazakevitch proved to be the most active and productive. During the entire period of his stay in the country, Kazakevitch took part in 5 expeditions and played an active role in the commission for drafting new terms. N. N. Babynin also took part in the work of the commission and participated at the expedition to the Mergen- Gun Khoshuu of Sayn-noyon-khan aimak. Apparently, A. V. Petrov returned to Russia after a six-month study of the Mongolian language in the Setsen-Khan khuree of the Setsen-Khan aimak. The Mongolian Scientific Committee awarded V. A. Kazakevitch with a diploma for the successful fulfillment of numerous assignments. The successful training practice of these students in Mongolia opened a new page in Mongolian studies.
Key words: Petrograd Institute of Living Oriental Languages, Mongolian Scientific Committee, Expedition, Mongolian, Mongolian Studies, Setsen-khan Aimak, Sain-Noyon-khan Aimak, Mongolia, V. A. Kazakevich, N. N. Babynin, A. V. Petrov, J. Tseveen (Ts. Zh. Zhamtsarano)

D. Seliunina. Concept törö in the Mongolian political culture of 17th century — 46
This article deals with analysis of the use of the term törö bases on the material of the early monuments of the Mongolian historical literature: «The Yellow Chronicle» (Sir-a tuγuji) and ‟The Jewel Translucent Sutra” (Erdeni tunumal neretü sudur). The results of the research based on the comparative analysis of two mentioned sources and also usage of törö in the first Mongolian chronicle «The Secret History of the Mongols». Thus it allowed to use synchronic and diachronic research methods, which reveals meaning variations of the concept. Törö designated a type of connection between the subjects of political communication. Its origin in the Chinggis Khan empire time made this type of relation appropriate and sacred. Nevertheless, the actual content of the term was diverse and depended on the time, conditions and participants of the relations.
Key words: political culture, Altan-Khan, Chinggis-Khan, terminology of power, Mongolian chronicles

I. O. Sobennikova. P. K. Kozlov and Siberian merchants: friendly relations and patronage of the arts (the end of the ХIХth century — the first quarter of the ХХth century) (on the example of the families of the Kyakhta merchants Sobennikovs and Molchanovs) — 51
The article is dedicated to the famous traveler and explorer of Central Asia Peter Kuzmich Kozlov, in connection with the 155th anniversary of his birth and the 110th anniversary of his discovery of the Dead City of Khara-Khoto in the southern part of Gobi Desert (Inner Mongolia, China). Purpose of the article: The article describes the relationship of the scientist with the most prominent and well-known representatives of the West Siberian merchants who lived on the border of Russia and China (Kyakhta) at the end of the 19th — the beginning of the 20th centuries; their support and assistance in sending and meeting Russian expeditions. The article is a short historical biography of these people, members of the Troitskosavsko-Kyakhtinsky Branch of the Amur Division of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society, whose honorary member was Peter Kuzmich Kozlov. It is based on memories of P. K. Kozlov about the Sobennikov-Molchanov family, their meetings and friendship. The Siberian and Moscow periods of the end of the 19th — the first quarter of the 20th centuries are covered. Particular attention is paid to the merchant patron of the 1st guild V. A. Sobennikov, with whose family P. K. Kozlov maintained relations for at least 40 years. The trading house ‟Sobennikov and Bro. Molchanovs” worked both in Mongolia and in Siberia. The article includes a part of the home archives presented in the form of photographs, documents, and also photographic inscription on Kozlov's book to the member of the Sobennikov family.
Key words: Kozlov, traveler, Central Asia, Mongolia, China, expedition, Buryats, merchants, archive, geographical society, Sobennikov, Molchanovs, Badmazhapov

S. Chuluun, T. Yusupova. Expedition photographs of Russian researchers in the Mongolian archives as sources on the history of the exploring of Mongolia — 58
The article presents a brief overview of the expeditionary photo albums of Russian researchers who were members of the expeditions of the Mongolian Commission of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the 1920s — L. A. Amsterdamskaya, V. A. Kazakevich, E. V. Kozlova, K. L. Ostrovetsky, N. N. Poppe, and the traveler P. K. Kozlov, — stored in the Mongolian archives. These photo albums were annexed to the reports that expedition members submitted to the Mongolian Scientific Committee per the agreements between the Mongolian Commission and the Scientific Committee. It is shown that expeditionary photographic materials are the important sources on the history of the exploring of Mongolia by the Academy of Sciences, the analysis of the conditions and methods of expeditions’ work, as well as the joint activities of Russian and Mongolian researchers.
Key words: Mongolia, expeditions, the USSR Academy of Sciences, Mongolian Scientific Committee, photo reports


K. V. Alekseev. On a Certain Element of Structure of the Erdeni Tunumal — 67
The article is devoted to a survey of one of the elements of textual organization in the Erdeni Tunumal, the Mongolian literary monument of the 17th century. The text does not have a clear, graphically structured division into chapters or parts. Its segmentation is performed with the use of the special formula ‟thus it was”, which marks certain episodes or the most important events (as seen by the author). Such a segmentation of the text, inherent in many Mongolian chronicles of the 17th century, is subjective and cognitive in nature and represents the source of the pragmatic approach to the text division in future.

Key words: Erdeni Tunumal, Altan Khan, architectonics, Mongolian historiography

B. Kh. Borlykova, B. V. Menyaev. Samples of written heritage of Kalmyk (based on the materials of the Scientific archive of the Russian geographical society) — 73
The article describes the samples of the written heritage of the Kalmyks, stored in the Scientific archive of the Russian geographical society. The presented manuscripts testify to the variety of genres of oral folk art of the Kalmyks, their uniqueness and originality. Folklore texts have been translated from the Oirat language «todo bichig» into modern Russian.

Key words: written heritage, manuscripts, Kalmyks, Oirat language, the Scientific archive of the Russian geographical society, E. Zhabdykov, Sh. Sadzhyrkhaev, riddles, songs, sayings

A. Zorin, L. Kriakina. Main results of the comprehensive study of a bunch of the 18th century Kalmyk manuscripts in Tibetan kept in the IOM RAS — 81
This paper sums up some results of the study of a bunch of Tibetan-language folios, mostly produced in Kalmykia and dated from the 18th century. A special attention is paid to the restorative procedures applied to them and the analysis of various Russian and European watermarks discovered on some of the folios. The dating of these watermarks (according to the catalogues compiled by S. A. Klepikov and N. P. Lickhachev) supports the assumption that the manuscripts were found and brought to St. Petersburg after 1771 when a large part of the Kalmyks migrated from the European steppes back to Central Asia. The comprehensive study of these and other Kalmyk manuscripts written in Tibetan has a great importance for exploring both distinguishing features of the local Oirat-Kalmyk tradition of Tibetan-language book production and the circle of texts that were used by the Kalmyk Buddhists in the 18th century. It turned out that the bunch contained some folios of non-Kalmyk origination, including, rather sensationally, a few folios that had been brought by Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt to St. Petersburg from his long Siberian expedition, in 1727.

Key words: Kalmyk manuscripts in Tibetan, manuscript collections of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Buddhist literature, restoration of Oriental manuscripts, watermarks, the 18th century

M. M. Sodnompilova. Images of the forest in the terminology of ‟The Secret History of the Mongols” (Mongγolun niγuča tobčiyan) in the context of the historical geography of Inner Asia — 91
The nominative designations of the vegetation cover of the territory are of particular interest for historical geography studies. The terminology denoting forests, thickets, groves in ‟The Secret History of the Mongols” is a very ancient layer of vocabulary, the formation of which is influenced mainly by pictorial words.

Key words: The Secret History of the Mongols, life support space, sacred topography, terminology


V. Inzhinash. Red Chamber of Tears. The Novel. Chapters fourteen and fifthteen (translated from Classical Mongolian by L. G. Skorodumova) — 95

Information about the authors — 103


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