The Buddhist Traditions of Russia: Commemorating the 250th Anniversary of the Lineage of the Pandita Khambo Lamas [Учение Будды в России: 250 лет институту Пандито Хамбо-лам]. Editorial Board: Prof. Dr. I. F. Popova (chief editor); B. B. Badmaev; Prof. Dr. V. L. Uspensky; Dr. A. V. Zorin (executive editor); A. A. Sizova (secretary). St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg
Centre for Oriental Studies Publishers, 2015. 186 р.
The book is based on the proceedings of the conference entitled, On the Occasion
of the 250th Anniversary of the Creation of the Institution of the Pandito Khambo Lamas
in Russia, held at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, RAS, and Datsan Kunzechoinei,
on September 15—18, 2014. The conference brought together representatives of various
academic, religious and cultural institutions of Russia, Mongolia and Poland. The collected
papers of this conference will be of use and interest for scholars in Oriental and
religious studies, as well as for all those interested in the history of Buddhism in Russia.
From the Editorial Board — 6
V.L. Uspensky. Foreword — 8
B.B. Badmaev. From Transbaikal to the Capital: from the history of the Buddhist Temple in St. Petersburg — 11
Tsongol Battsengel Natsagdorj. The Buddhist 'Mongol' identity of the Russian Buryats
in the 18th century — 15
In the article the role of Buddhism for the Buryat identity is
studied. Though the Buryats who remained on the Russian side after
conclusion of the Treaty of Kiakhta in 1727 were mostly Shamanists,
a few decades later Buddhism became widely spread among them.
The reason behind it lies in the strong Buryat aspiration to maintain
their Mongolian identity. Since the majority of the Mongols who
lived in the Qing Empire confessed Buddhism, the Buryats followed
their example only to be identified as real Mongols. Some of the
Buryats kept loyalty to Russia until it started a restrictive policy
towards Buddhism, the main instrument of Buryat immunity against
the cultural assimilation.
Key words: Buddhism in Buryatia, identity, Mongols.
Veronika Beliaeva-Saczuk. Buddhistic influence on the modern cult
of mountains among Tunka Buryats — 37
The paper analyzes the influence exerted by Buddhism on the
modern system of beliefs of the Tunka Buryats in which the cult of
mountains and their sacral patrons plays one of the most important
Key words: Tunka valley, Buddhism in Buryatia, modern
Buryat Shamanism, cult of mountains.
Buda B. Badmaev (Shirete Lama Jampa Donyed),
Marat R. Izmailov. Tibetan Medical Practice of Emchi Lamas — 48
The article introduces traditional Tibetan medicine as a comprehensive
medical system which was elaborated in Tibet in the 12th
century. The authors make a short observation of its sources, theoretical
basis, unique methods of diagnosis and treatment, peculiarities
of its pharmacy. It also contains a brief survey of the history of
traditional Tibetan medicine in Russia, information about its famous
doctors and main treatises. The authors also outline their own views
of the advantages and perspectives of Tibetan medicine.
Key words: Tibetan medicine, doṣa, Rgyud bzhi, pulse diagnosis.
Yulia I. Elikhina, Liubov I. Kryakina, Аnton M. Scheglov. Attribution and problems of conservation of Some Buddhist Images from the Collection of the St. Petersburg Datsan — 57
The authors of the article consider ten Buddhist paintings
(thangka) made by the old masters from the 18th to 19th century.
They are a part of the collection of the St. Petersburg Datsan and
represent images of various Buddhas, Bodhisattvas and Dharmapālas.
The first part of the paper deals with some issues of the
conservation treatment applied in several stages to these thangka
paintings. The second part focuses on the iconography and stylistics
of the deities. Buryat, Mongolian and Chinese painting styles can be
recognized. Problems of conservation are very important for Buddhist
Key words: St. Petersburg Datsan collection of arts, Buddhist
paintings, thangka, conservation, Buddhas, bodhisattvas, Dharmapālas.
Yulia I. Elikhina. The Cult of Vajrapāṇi in Buddhist Art — 67
In this article, the author considers the origin, evolution and
distribution of the cult of Vajrapāṇi. Originally, the cult of the
ancient Greek hero Hercules influenced his iconography. Then he
transformed into a wrathful deity of the Dharmapāla class. In Tibetan
Buddhism Vajrapāṇi also appears as a Bodhisattva. However, his
iconography as a wrathful deity is more widespread.
Key words: Buddhism, Hercules, Vajrapāṇi, iconography, Bodhisattva,
Yulia V. Boltach. The Activities of Monk Shun-tao and the Official Recognition
of Buddhism in the Goguryo State
(Based on the Materials of the Korean Sources
of the Goryo Era) — 81
The article is concerned with the activities of Shun Dao
(4th cent. AD), the first Buddhist preacher in the state of Goguryo. His activities are described in the three main sources on the early
history of Korea: History of the Three Kingdoms (1145), Lives of
Eminent Korean Monks (ca. 1215—1220) and Memorabilia of the
Three Kingdoms (1285). A comparative study of the corresponding
parts of these three sources makes possible to better understand the
circumstances of the introduction of the Buddha’s Law into Goguryo
— an important moment in the early history of traditional
Buddhism in the present-day territory of Russia.
Key words: history of Buddhism in Russia, history of Buddhism
in Korea, Goguryo, Shun-tao, History of the Three Kingdoms,
Lives of Eminent Korean Monks, Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms.
Alexander V. Zorin. On the Tibetan Texts from the Irtysh River Shores Brought
to St. Petersburg in the first third of the 18th century — 102
The author of the article proves to be erroneous a common
established view that the first Tibetan texts were brought to
St. Petersburg from Ablaikit Monastery in 1720. The evidence
provided by the eighteenth century eyewitness reports discloses the
fact that the very first texts were acquired from the so-called Sem
Palat (Seven Chambers), another Dzungar ecclesiastical complex
located on the shores of the River Irtysh, in 1718 (or 1717). The first
Ablaikit texts were sent to St. Petersburg in 1721. However, it
required some time for scholars in St. Petersburg and Western
Europe to understand the fact that another ruined monastery had
been discovered. On the contrary, in the second half of the 18th century
the first acquisition of texts from Sem Palat was forgotten. The
manuscript leaves from both sources were kept at the St. Petersburg
Academy of Sciences for many years, then, in the 20th century, after
the World War II, they were disseminated amidst numerous scattered
materials of the Tibetan Library of the Institute of Oriental Studies,
the USSR Academy of Sciences (now the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts,
the Russian Academy of Sciences) until their rediscovery
and identification in 2012—2015.
Key words: Sem Palat, Ablaikit, Tibetan manuscripts, Tibetan
Tatiana V. Ermakova. The Approach of the St. Petersburg School of the Buddhist
Studies to Exploration of the Buddhist Monasteries of Tibet — 119
The article evaluates scientific and organizational contribution
of S. F. Oldenburg and Th. I. Stcherbatsky to the organization of
expeditions to Tibet initiated by the Russian Geographic Society and
the Russian Committee for the Study of Central and Eastern Asia.
Materials relating the expeditions of G. Tsybikov and B. Baradiin
were used to demonstrate how the theoretical approaches of the
St. Petersburg School of the Buddhist Studies influenced their aims
Key words: Russian Geographic Society (RGS), Russian
Committee for Central and Eastern Asia explorations (RCCAE),
Buddhist monasteries, A. M. Pozdneev, G. Tsybikov, B. Baradiin.
Svetlana S. Sabrukova. The 13th Dalai Lama’s Letter to the Tibetan People.
A Document Kept at the AO IOM RAS,
D. A. Klements’ Collection — 134
The article contains the Russian translation of the 13th Dalai
Lama’s alleged letter to the Tibetan people which is kept at the
Archives of the Orientalists, the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts,
the Russian Academy of Sciences, within the papers which belonged
to Dmitry A. Klements. The document reflects the historical situation
in Tibet in early 20th century and can be interesting to the
scholars who study this period.
Key words: the 13th Dalai Lama, the Tibetan government,
Dmitrii V. Ivanov. Photo Portraits of Russian Merchants from Altai Who Traded
in Mongolia during the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries — 140
The article introduces a collection of photographs depicting
Russian merchants in Mongolia at the turn of the 20th century, and
which are kept at present in the Museum of Anthropology and
Ethnography (Kunstkamera), RAS.
Key words: Mongolia, Russian trade in Mongolia, history of
Margarita F. Albedil. On Neo-Buddhism of B. D. Dandaron — 145
In the article a modern interpretation of Buddhism by B. D. Dandaron
(1914—1974) called by himself the Neo-Buddhism (необуддизм) is reviewed. Its teaching is an attempt to merge spiritual
accomplishments of both the East and the West. The main points of
Neo-Buddhism were first outlined by B. D. Dandaron in his letters to
N. Y. Kovrigina in the 1950s. They contained his ideas of saṃsāra
and nirvāṇa, the individual self, epistemology, ways of spiritual selfimprovement,
etc. In order to clarify them for the modern Russian
reader Dandaron also made use of western philosophical and scientific
Key words: Neo-Buddhism, saṃsāra,nirvāṇa, mysticism, intuition,
metaphysics, individual self, the synthesis of religion and
Badma M. Narmayev, Elena Yu. Kharkova. Lama Tenzin Khetsün Samayev
Remembered by Friends, Colleagues, and Relatives — 155
The present paper is dedicated to the memory of Tenzin Khetsün
(Fiodor Sergeyevich) Samayev (1954—2005), who was a wellknown
religious leader, as well as an influential state and public
figure of the 1990s. An educated Buddhist monk, who studied in
Mongolia and India, Lama Samayev devoted his entire life to the
revival of Buddhism in Russia. During the crucial years of political
and social changes, he headed Küntsechoinei Datsan in St. Petersburg
and restored it as a religious, educational and cultural center.
One of the most significant aspects of his work was the endeavor to
save the nature and sacred landscape in his native Oka and Tunka
Regions in the Republic of Buryatia.
The authors cite here a few previously published memoirs about
Tenzin Khetsün Samayev and present some new ones.
Key words: Tenzin Khetsün Samayev, Buddhism in Russia,
Küntsechoinei Datsan in St. Petersburg, Oka and Tunka Regions of
the Republic of Buryatia.
Olga S. Khizhnyak. The Archival Documents and Photos at the Exhibition
Dedicated to the 250th Anniversary
of the Pandita Khambo Lama’s Institution — 172
The article informs about the events which were held at the
State Museum of History of Religion in St. Petersburg to mark the
250th anniversary of the establishment in Russia the official rank of
Pandita Khambo Lama who has been in charge of all Buddhists
residing in Eastern Siberia. This exhibition brought to view many
hitherto unpublished documents and photos. Some materials deal
with antireligious policy exercised in Soviet times and the activities
of Soviet museums aimed at preservation from destruction of
Buddhist sacred objects.
Key words: exhibition, Buddhism, Pandita Khambo Lamas, Buryatia,
destruction of cult objects, museums, documents, photos.
Alexander I. Andreev. Review on the book: A.A. Terentyev. Buddhism in Tsarist and Soviet Russia. Old Photos [Буддизм в России — царской и советской. Старые фотографии]. St. Petersburg, Narthang 2014. 484 p., ill. — 183
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On December 4-6, 2017, the Annual IOM Academic Session The Written Heritage of the Orient as the Basis for Classical Tradition of Oriental Studies will be held.