B.Ya. Vladimirtsov – the Outstanding Researcher of Mongolia in the 20th Century [Б.Я.Владимирцов – выдающийся монголовед ХХ века]. Proceedings of International Conference October 6–8, 2014. St.Petersburg, Russia. Editor-in-chief S.Chuluun. Compiled and edited by I.V.Kulganek. Ulaanbaatar–St.-Petersburg. 2015. 218 p. ISBN 978-99973-0-619-7.
The proceedings reflect the results of international research conference, taken place at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, RAS (St. Petersburg, Russia). It was supported by the National Foundation for Mongolian Studies (Government of Mongolia). The conference was dedicated to the 130th anniversary of B.Ya. Vladimircov, an outstanding Mongolist, who influenced greatly all fields of Mongolian studies. His works are of great importance for historians, linguists, researchers of literature, culture and politics, as well as for interdisciplinary studies. This gathering was the second international conference, held by the Institute of History, Mongolian Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences. These proceedings are collection of articles, written by Russian and Mongolian scholars on different problems of history, culture, literature and languages of Mongolian peoples. Some of the articles are dedicated to the role of B.Ya. Vladimircov in different fields of Mongolian studies. Most of the articles answers questions on publishing exact literary monuments, terminology, classification of folklore texts, analysis of poetics, research and interpretation of different historical events, new discoveries in archives and manuscripts’ collections in Russia and Mongolia. This collection of articles is designed for scholars in Mongolian studies and for everyone, who is interested in history and culture of Russia and Central Asia.
Foreword (by I.V. Kulganek) — 11
Popova I.F. Director of Institute of Oriental Manuscripts RAS — 18
Zayabaatar D. Secretary of the National Foundation for Mongolian Studies (Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia) — 20
Bicheev B.A. Oirat version of “Tale of Naranu Gerel” (“Tale of White Tara”) — 23
The researchers divided the texts of well-known and existed only in manuscript form “Tale of Naranu Gerel” into three editions. They regard these texts as variants of the same work, despite the diff erences in their content. However, analysis of the content of the two earlier editions of the Mongol and Oirat Manuscripts allows you to select the Oirat text in a separate version.
Keywords: Mongolian literature, Oirat literature, “A Tale of Naranu Gerel” early edition, late edition, Oirat version of the work
Burykin A.A. B. Vladimirtsov – founder of modern Altaic studies — 31
The author of article observes the life of B.J. Vladimirtsov and his scientifi c activity connected with collecting of materials for the description and studying stories of the Mongolian languages and also for working out of the Altaic theory as the theory of genetic relationship of Turkic, Mongolian and Tungus-Manchu languages. The author shows that the attention to various historical conditions of the Mongolian languages studying of genetic relations of the Mongolian, Turkic and Tungus-Manchu languages stimulated the outlook and development of the scholars in the fi eld of comparative-historical linguistics and provided a priority of experts in the Mongolian languages in comparative historical Altaic studies.
Keywords: Mongolian languages, Turkic languages, Tungus-Manchu languages, comparative linguistics, historical linguistics, altaistics
Valeev R.M. Origins of the Mongolian and Buddhist Studies in Kazan University (the first half of 19 century) — 43
The report focused coverage of the phenomenon of the formation and development of Russian Mongolian and Buddhist studies at Kazan University in the fi rst half of the nineteenth century. In this period we can learn the formations of the beginning of the Mongolian and Buddhist studies at the University. We can watch the activity of the Orientalists, the main stages of formation and development of academic and scientifi c disciplines and areas in Kazan University.
Keywords: Kazan University, Mongolian studies, Buddhist studies, O.M. Kovalevskyi, A.C. Popov, B.N. Vasilyev
Gerelbadrakh Zh. Was there an “ongu bool”? — 51
The term of «bo’ol» (slave) was used to call ‘subordinate people’ in the Mongolian nomad society of the Medieval age. The main deff erence between Mongolian slave-bo’ol and classical slavery of the world is to owe one’s family, fl at and property. In Mongolia the slavery had not been developed in the classic way due to the nomadic lifestyle. Contrastively, one thousand slaves work in the 1000 hectare fi eld, while one man herds a one thousand animal herd. However, there were several forms of slavery (or subordination) in Mongolia. There are special names and expressions such as, “jala’u” (a young man), “tutqar” (servant), “ger-ün gü’ün” (a family person), “haran” (a man). Also, depending on how many generations people had been slaved, there were diff erent names such as “besereg bo’ol”, “boorci bo’ol”, “boki bo’ol”, “toki bo’ol”. The lower form of slave was ‘servant’. The expression of the «bo’ol» beside as subordinate people, it also means subordinate tribe or clan – “bo’ol ayimag”. The name of those tribes, which were under the other tribes’ supervision for several generations, was called “ütegü bo’ol”. When Russian scholars translated Rashid al-din’s “Compendium of chronicles” from old Persian into Russian, they misinterpreted the term “ütegü bo’ol” as the “ongu bo’ol”. Therefore, caused by the misunderstanding, the Russian and Mongolian historians made attempts to make the term more precise that “ongu bo’ol” was a kind of slavery in medieval Mongolia. In fact, that form of slavery was “ütegü bo’ol”.
Keywords: Нistory of Mongolia, slavery, terminology
Dashniam L. On the Classifi cation of the wise Words in Mongolian — 62
Mongolian folklore has an extensive formation of expressions, called the generic term «proverbs». Examples of proverbs and sayings usage we meet both in fi ction and in contemporary speech. Here we try to give a classifi cation of Mongolian proverbs, wise words and sayings.
Keywords: Mongolian folklore, proverb, classifi cation, Mongolian culture
Drobyshev Ju. Weather magic in medieval Mongolia — 69
The article talks about the custom to infl uence the weather using special “rain stones”. Th is magical method, apparently, originated among the Turkic peoples, and was subsequently adopted by the Mongols. Due to the strengthening Buddhism in Mongolia after XVI century, the Mongols began to use Tibetan rituals to call the rain.
Keywords: Mongols, magic, rain stone
Jelikhina Ju. S.A. Teploukhov’s excavations of the mound number 12(24) in Noin-Ula, Mongolia in 1924 — 79
The article is devoted to the excavations of the mound number 12(24) by archaeologist S.A. Teploukhov (24) in Noin-Ula, Mongolia in 1924. The Barrow was plundered in ancient times, but many fi ndings are unique in the world and are masterpieces of world culture.
Keywords: S.A. Teploukhov, Noin-Ula, mound, archaeological fi nds
Zakharova I.M. The embassy of the count Y.A. Golovkin to the Qing Empire and Mongolian watercolors by the artist A.E. Martynov — 92
The article presents an overview of the goals, tasks, main activities and outcomes of the extraordinary embassy to China in 1805–1806 under the guidance of Count Y.A. Golovkin. The characteristic based on archival and printed sources defi nes the main fi eld of activities of the scientists – academicians and adjuncts of the Imperial Academy of Sciences F.I. Schubert, M.I. Adams, J.G. Klaproth and I.I. Redovsky and artists, sent with the embassy. A special attention is given to the artists A.E. Martynov, I.P. Alexandrov, T.A. Vasiliev, who made a great number of sketches of cities, rivers, lakes, domesticity of inhabitants, folk costumes, ambassadorial weekdays by following the route of the embassy. The article emphasizes the importance of artistic results of the embassy, the main achievement of which belongs to the artist Andrei Efi movich Martynov (1768-1826). A brief analysis of his art is given by using his Mongolian watercolors, which are of great interest from the point of view of researching the nature and customs of the Mongols.
Keywords: Y.A. Golovkin, the extraordinary embassy to China in 1805–1806, A.E. Martynov, itinerant artists
Kantor E.A. Monglian translation of the “Mani Kabum” by Guusi Čorǰi (1608) — 103
The article investigates Tibetan literary monument “Mani kabum” (tib. Ma ni bka’ ‘bum) and one of its Mongolian translations, namely that made by Siregetü Güüsi corji in 1608. Material concerning study of this translation including data of its colophon published by Ts. Damdinsuren in 1959 is summarized herein. There is also given a brief description of text structure covering the part of manuscript kept in the Museum of Ts.Damdinsuren (Ulan-Bator), which has recently become available in digital format.
Keywords: Tibeto-mongolian literature, buddhist literature, terma, tibetomongolian studies
Kukeev D.G. Some information on material heritage of the nomadic population of Jungar Khanate — 111
The report attempts to describe and make a brief analysis of the material heritage of the nomadic population of Jungar Khanate, without involving their Oirat’s “cousins” from the East (Khoshut Khanate) and from the Far West (Kalmyk Khanate).
Keywords: Jungars, “towns”, coins, maps, stella, nomads
Kulganek I.V. The idea of happiness in the Mongolian Proverbs and sayings — 122
Тhe article analyzes the traditional idea of happiness in a traditional Mongolian society. The author uses the approach to the artistic language of the text as a phenomenon, which is the mean of cultural expression, based on the fact that Mongolian Proverbs are a mean of storing and transferring the experience of the people, a part of spiritual culture, concentrate ethnic identity, practical philosophy, rules of life, the historical memory of the people. The article describes the concept of “happiness”, which it occupies in the Mongolian paremiological Fund. Examples confi rm the position of the author. The conclusions of the article are as follows: happiness in the Mongolian Proverbs is interpreted as a state of complete satisfaction and luck, albeit with responsibility for the achievement of his own happiness, closeness of happiness and unhappiness, emphasizes the transience and illusion of happiness, the relationship between happiness and intelligence, the need for positive action for the conquest of happiness.
Keywords: Mongolian, Proverbs, aphorisms, proverbs, the concept of happiness, connotations, folklore, artistic language
Munkhtsetseg E. Some terms in B.Ya Vladimirtsov’s book “Social structure of Mongols” and in the dictionary “Qaγan-u bičigsen manju mongγul ugen-u toli bičig” (1717) — 130
Some terms on the social structure of the Mongolian society from two sources: a book by B.Ya.Vladimirtsov and a Manchu-Mongolian dictionary are considered in the article.
Keywords: Social structure of Mongolian society, Manchu-Mongolian dictionary
Nosov D.A. B.Ya. Vladimirtsov as father founder of modern studies in Mongolian folklore — 138
Main aim of the article is to highlight B. Vladimirtsov’s contribution to studies in mongolian folklore. The author proclaims, that Vladimirtsov was a pioneer in three braches of modern activities in mongolian folklore. Th at is collecting, editing and studing of mongol oral poetry.
Keywords: Vladimirtsov, history of mongolian studies, folklore stuides
Nosov D.A., Pochekaev R.Yu. Manuscript “The fragment on court order…” from Ts. Zamtsarano’s collection (IOM RAS, St. Petersburg) as a source on the Mongolian law history —145
The article introduce to scholars the manuscript, known as “The fragment on court order…” from Tseveen Jamtsarano’s (1881-1942) collection. It is essential for studies in traditional Mongolian law, especially in court matters. The document is described archeographically, transcribed and translated. According to the analysis of the document authors come to the conclusion, that Mongolian trial order at the end 19th – beginning 20th century, described in this text, goes back to traditional trial practices of Turkic and Mongolian peoples. While choosing between arbitrary trials and offi cial state courts Mongols used to prefer fi rst ones. It is typical for representatives of traditional law systems of the East.
Keywords: Mongolian source study, traditional Mongolian law; legal awareness; court order, court proceedings
Petrova M.P. Modernist Trends in Mnglian Poetry of the late 20th – early 21st centuries — 154
Mongolian poetry of the late 20th – early 21st century is characterized by variety of names, styles and trends. Development of Mongolian poetry, as well as all Mongolian literature nowadays is represented by two main tendencies – realistic and non-realistic one. The latter includes all the modernist and postmodernist currents. Among the poets whose work tends to be called modernism D. Urianhay (born 1940) B. Galsansuh (born 1972) G. Ayuurzana (born 1970) P. Bathuyag (born 1975) O. Sodnompil (born 1952) L. Uldziytugs (born 1972) G. Badamsambu (born 1967) and others.
Keywords: Mongolian poetry, realistic tendency, modernism, postmodernism
Tuvshintugs B. Тhe tradition of printing block in clear script — 165
The view that books were not printed in Clear script has been denied by researchers since the beginning of XX century and taken more than 100 years. But there have not been any substantial works that clarifi es tradition of printing books in Clear script, survey about books and sutras as well as status of printing block in Clear script in Mongolians literary history. In other words, only some researchers briefl y mention about it in their works. The author aims to introduce the survey about the printing books in Clear script.
Keywords: Сlear writing, typography, traditions, woodcut
Turanskaya A.A. National and cultural peculiarities of Mongolian translation of Milarepa’s “Gurbum” — 179
Th is article is focused on problems connected with the translation of elements of national culture and national experience refl ected in the source text. The purpose of the research is to determine some national and cultural peculiarities of Mongolian translation of Milarepa’s “Gurbum”.
Keywords: Širegetü Güsi Čorǰi, national and cultural peculiarities of Mongolian translation, translation transformations, lacune
Chuluun S. The study of the newly discovered “Shar tuuj” found in Mongolia — 186
One of the main resources to study History of Mongolia the 17 century is the work that is famous by the name “Shar tuuj”. One of source records found by me Chuluun in the Central province, Mongolia in 2006 has already entered the scientifi c fi eld. The record is called “Manzushir record”. The newly found source made the list of main sources on the Mongolian history of the 17 century completed and the study results by researchers of this period has to be reconsidered increasing the scale of such study. Th is record of “Shar tuuj” has an important information that give possibility to determine the author and written year of the source. The former researchers determined the author`s name and the written year differently without any same opinions. However, considering this newly found record gives possibility to determine the author and written year of Shar tuuj differently and the information in this topic is given in the article. The Shar tuuj is an interesting source that includes in its contents the History of Mongolia of the 17 century, genesis of aristocrats, their titles, relations and move places, duchesses` life and ethnic groups. The further detailed research is required.
Keywords: Shar tuuj, found in Mongolia, author, written year, history of Mongolia in the 17 century, studied level, name
Yurchenko A.G. “Sacred arithmetic” and size of the armies of Chingizids — 201
In medieval Latin chronicles the Mongolian armies is estimated at three hundred or fi ve hundred thousand people. How are these numbers? The Latin authors should be considered in the context of the medieval world view, which was part of divine power in earthly affairs. Jean de Joinville, a member of the seventh crusade, a Nestorian retells the legend of how the Heavenly Lord bestows victory GenghisKhan. By the will of the heavenly Lord in one of the battles of the 300 soldiers must defeat 300000 enemies. The ratio of the number of troops should be understood as follows: three hundred loyal riders will receive the support of the heavenly armies. A myriad of invisible helpers will descend on the enemy and will bring victory. Medieval chronicles messages about 100000 or 500000 armies are a projection of the celestial battle on ground battles. The army of one hundred thousandth is the army of God. If God helps you, the heavenly host remains invisible. If God punishes believers for sins, the heavenly army is the army of one hundred thousandth enemy on the ground. Christian world considered the Mongol victory as a punishment of God, and gave rise to the myth of the uncountable Genghis-Khan men.
Keywords: Medieval Latin sources, size of the Mongol armies, Jean de Joinville, celestial battle, the army of God.
Notes on authors — 216
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Vladimirtsov, Boris Yakovlevich
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