Countries and Peoples of the East. Vol. XXXV. Collections, texts and their "biographies". Ed. by I.F.Popova, T.D.Skrynnikova.Moscow: Nauka - Vostochnaya literatura 2014. 439 p. ISBN 978-5-02-036581-0.
K.V. Alekseev. Translations of the Buddhist Canonical Works by
Altangerel-Ubaši Housed at the Manuscript Collections of St. Petersburg
and Ulaanbaatar — 5
Summary: The article is aimed to compensate for deficiency of data on the
translation activity in Khalkha during the late 16th — first half of the XVIIth centuries.
It deals with the versions of the Mongolian translations of the Buddhist
canonical works carried out by the Khalkha translator Altangerel-ubaši (17th cent.)
housed at private and public collections of St. Petersburg and Ulaanbaatar.
Key words: Mongolian literature, Buddhist canonical works, translation,
K.M. Bogdanov. Movable-type Printed Books from Khara-Khoto: Criteria and
Problems Related to the Search of these Editions (P.K. Kozlov Collection,
IOM RAS Tangut Collection) — 21
Summary: This article’s subject is the use of movable type printing in book
publishing in the Tangut State Xi Xia (982–1227). This subject is interesting because
in the last years many noted experts in this field consider this way of book
printing to be the most widespread in the Xi Xia State. We offer a brief history of
this invention, a history of its modern research and also describe the problems, difficulties
and prospects of further research of this interesting aspect of ancient book
history in the article. The richest and biggest Tangut book collection stored at IOM
RAS is a basis for the writing of this short study.
Key words: IOM RAS Tangut books collection, moveable type printing,
woodblock printing, Khara-Khoto.
S.D. Burmistrov. From the Indian Collection of IOM RAS — 39
Summary: The article offers transliterated texts an translations of two hymns
to Śiva — Śaṃkara’s Daśaślokī and Daśaślokīvedānta from the “Nandikeśvarapurāṇa”, to be found in the manuscript V, 9c (Ind. 43) from the Indian collection of
the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of Russian Academy of Sciences.
Key words: Śiva, Śaṃkara, Daśaślokī, Vedānta, Hindu hymns, Purāṇas.
O.V. Vasilyeva. “For the Benefit of the Imperial Public Library…”:
Growth of the Collections through the Acquisition of Oriental Manuscripts
in 1812–1814 — 61
Summary: In 1795 Catherine the Great decided to establish in St. Petersburg
the Imperial Public Library (the National Library of Russia of today), the Manuscript
department of which exists since 1805. However, officially, the Library was founded
by Alexander I in 1812 and opened for public in 1814. According to documents, till
1812 the Oriental Manuscript Collection consisted of 182 items. Within three years,
it grew by 22 items: 7 Japanese, 4 Chinese, 9 Islamic in Arabic script, 1 Hebrew and
1 Armenian. They were donated by “enlightenment fanciers”, namely, the director
of the Library A.N. Olenin, deputy director S.S. Uvarov, the military officers
A.P. Tormasov and N.F. Khitrovo, the mining engineer P.K. Frolov, the antiquarian
K.A. Etter, the merchant M.M. Buldakov and Artemiy Araratsky, a native of Armenia.
The present article is focused on the manuscripts (including their origin and
provenance), which came to the Library during the first stage of its existence and
which gave rise to its now numerous Oriental collections.
Key words: Oriental manuscripts in St. Petersburg, A.N. Olenin, S.S. Uvarov,
the National Library of Russia.
E.V. Gusarova. The Oromo People in Ethiopia during the Reign of Täklä
Giyorgis I (Late 18th Century A.D.) according to His Royal Chronicle — 82
Summary: The article deals with several episodes of the centuries-old history
of the Oromo people speaking a Cushitic language who nowadays constitute almost
a half of the population of Ethiopia. Its contents are concentrated on the military
campaigns undertaken by the king of the Ethiopian Christian state Täklä Giyorgis I
in 1779 and 1781 against some tribes of Oromo designated in the sources written in
the Classical Ethiopic (Ge‘ez) language with the pejorative ethnonym Galla. The
article is based on materials extracted from the royal chronicle of Täklä Giyorgis I
and from other chronicles included in the large corpus of local historiographic works
compiled in 1784–1785 on the order of a prominent Ethiopian nobleman H«aylä
Key words: late medieval Ethiopia, king Täklä Giyorgis I, the Oromo (Galla)
people, military campaigns, Ethiopian historiography.
Yu.I. Elikhina. Tibetan Collection of the State Hermitage — 95
Summary: The article describes the Tibetan collection of the State Hermitage,
numbering about three and a half thousand items. It describes the most interesting
and typical works of Tibetan Buddhist art. These include sculpture, paintings, ritual
objects, woodblocks and books. The article also describes the collectors.
Key words: The State Hermitage Museum, Tibetan collection, bronze sculpture,
The First Steps to the Enrichment and Cataloguing of the
Asiatic Museum (IOM RAS) According to Articles by R. Lenz and
P. Petrov in the Ministry of Education Journal. Preface, Commentaries by
T.V. Ermakova — 117
Summary: This is a commented and prefaced republication of short texts by
R. Lenz and P. Petrov shedding light on the 1830s as a formative period of Russian
Hindu studies and of the Hindu Collection of the Asiatic Museum (currently, IOM
Key words: R. Lenz, P. Petrov, Asiatic Museum, the history of Hindu studies
D.S. Zhamsueva. Monastic Life of the Buryat Datsans (Based on B. Baradin’s
Diaries of 1903–1904) — 133
Summary: The paper presents the characteristics of B. Baradin’s Diaries from
the funds of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of RAS, which provides unique
material for studying the spiritual and cultural heritage of the Buryat people.
The diachronic variety of sources allows us to make relatively comprehensive
conclusions about the activities of the Buryat datsans as centers of Buddhist culture.
Key words: diary, Datsan, community, icon-painting school, the interior.
A.V. Zorin. The Tibetan Collection Housed at the Institute of Oriental
Manuscripts, RAS — the History of Its Formation and Cataloguing,
1917–2013 — 143
Summary: The paper presents an account of the history of the Tibetan collection
housed at the IOM RAS during the period from the 1917 October revolution up
to the present. It touches upon the major sources of Tibetan block prints and manuscripts
acquired by the Institute (formerly the Asiatic Museum and later the Institute
of Oriental Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences), describes the history of their
academic processing, lists personal contributions of Leningrad/St. Petersburg scholars
to the formation and processing of the collection, characterizes the current work
aimed at the thorough processing and cataloguing of the collection. The paper is
based on the numerous archival documents at the IOM RAS.
Key words: the IOM RAS Tibetan collection, study of Tibetan prints and
manuscripts, history of Oriental studies in Russia, Asiatic Museum, Institute for
Buddhist Culture (INBUK), Institute of Oriental Studies of the USSR Academy of
V.P. Ivanov. The Earliest Photographs Taken in Mongolia by Russian Travellers — 170
Summary: Photography occupied an important place in the work of scientific
expeditions to Mongolia in the second half of the 20th century. These materials are
currently located in various scientific institutions of Petersburg. However, the accurate
dating of the photos presents a problem. The article discusses the chronology of
the earliest stage of ethnographic photography in Mongolia.
Key words: Mongolia, photography, ethnographical expeditions.
K.G. Marandjian. Gospel of Luke from the Collection of IOM RAS — 187
Summary: The article deals with the history of wood-block print edition of
Gospel of Luke from the collection of I.A. Goshkevich, the first Russian consul in
Japan. The new data allowed us to identify the name of the translator, the place and
date of its edition. The translation was made by the British protestant missioner
B. Bettelheim who spent eight years on Ryukyu. Based on the Chinese Gospel translation,
he made a translation of the book into the Ryukyuan version of the Japanese
Key words: Protestant missioner B. Bettelheim, diplomat I.A. Goshkevich,
Ryukyu kingdom, translation of Gospel of Luke, Honkong, the Ryukuan version of
the Japanese language.
S.L. Neveleva. Critical Edition of Ancient Indian Epics — 198
Summary: The article deals with the problem of critical texts’ edition of the
ancient Indian epics — Mahābhārata and Rāmāya_a. The main difficulty of this
work was connected with the specifics of the folklore origin of Indian epics, which
existed very long time in the oral tradition and have no single “original” text. There
is a great number of different manuscripts of every epos, which was collected and
revised in the process of critical texts’ edition.
Key words: Mahābhārata, critical edition, manuscripts, ancient Indian epics,
tradition, translation, oral, genesis, recension.
D.A. Nocov. Folklore Texts in V.A. Kazakevitch’s Unpublished
Report on His Research Trip to Gobi Desert in 1924 — 212
Summary: The article deals with the committing to writing of different folktexts
that were added by V.A. Kasakevitch into the report on his trip to Gobi desert
in 1924. These texts give us more profound understanding of the nature of the folklore
genre in southern regions of Mongolia in the beginning of the 20th century.
Key words: folklore, Mongolia, unpublished folktexts.
E.D. Ogneva. Buddhist Collections of the Tibetan Artistic Tradition in Southern
Ukraine (History of the Collections in the Museums of Odessa) — 226
Summary: In Ukraine, systematical examination of the sacral art collections
in the tradition of Northern Buddhist and especially Tibetan art begins only at the
end of the 20th century. The paper is dedicated to the history of such collections in
Key words: museum, Buddhism, Sakyamuni Buddha, Odessa, tanka collection,
E.P. Ostrovskaya. Buddhist Manuscripts in the Indian Collection of IOM RAS:
History of Collecting and Perspectives of Study — 247
Summary: The topic of the article is the history of collecting and perspectives
of study of the Buddhist manuscripts housed in the Indian part of collection of the
IOM RAS. The structure of written heritage of Northern Buddhism is shown in correlation
with specific features of Buddhist manuscripts in the IOM RAS. Special
attention is paid to the Sanskrit part of the collection. The article demonstrates the
main problems and perspectives of study of the Buddhist manuscripts in the context
of contemporary research trends.
Key words: Buddhism, Buddhist manuscripts, India, Indian collection of the
T.A. Pang. Manchu Notes on the Sibe Shamanism from the Archives
of N.N. Krotkov — 275
Summary: A diplomat and scholar, Nikolai N. Krotkov has collected a small,
but precious collection of Manchu language materials on the Sibe culture, ethnography
and shamanism. At present, the manuscripts are kept in the collection of the
Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, and his personal notes and drafts for his only article
on the Sibe shamanism (published in 1913), in the Archives of the Orientalists.
The article presents some Manchu language materials collected for Krotkov by the
Sibe teacher Balishan.
Key words: Manchu language, Sibe (Sibo), shamanism, Ili region, Tarbagatai,
I.F. Popova. The Formative Period of the Lexicography of the Chinese Language
in Russia — 291
Summary: The paper presents new archival material with a focus on the main
achievements of the Russian Sinologists into the field of the lexicography of the
Chinese language in the early stage of its history. The vocabularies and dictionaries
compiled in the 18–19th centuries in Russia according to semantic, phonetic and
graphical systems could have become an original contribution into the international
Sinology if they had not been compiled mainly for the personal use of the authors,
who never intended to publish them which is why they remain mostly unknown.
Key words: lexicography, Chinese dictionaries and vocabularies, history of
S.Yu. Ryzhenkov. On the Relevance of the Term “School” to the
Nirvana-sutra Exegetical Tradition in the 5th-Century China — 305
Summary: The paper focuses on the term zong in the Chinese Buddihst historiography.
Once used in the 13th–14th centuries by Japanese scholars, it became a
common term to designate schools of Chinese Buddhism. However, in some cases,
particularly in the case of Niepan-zong there is no historical evidence to refer to it as
a “school of Chinese Buddhism” in the sense of those in the Sui and Tang periods,
more likely it was an exegetical tradition. The paper contains a short outline of the
exegetical tradition of the Nirvana-sutra, which is given merely to point out its lack
of uniformity and inherent features of the later Chinese Buddhist schools, such as
the official lineage, the corpus of doctrinal texts, the “school-consciousness”, etc.
Therefore, we should deal more carefully with the term “school” while referring it to
Key words: Nirvana-sutra, zong, Chinese Buddhism, schools of Chinese
Buddhism, Southern and Northern dynasties, Buddhist monasteries.
A.A. Sizova. Lamrim Teaching in Traditional Buddhist Education through
the Example of the Lamrim Academic Curriculum at the dga' ldan chos
'khor gling Monastery — 316
Summary: The paper deals with the curriculum of the lamrim department at
the dGa' ldan chos 'khor gling (one of the subdivisions of the greater Labrang monastery).
The xylographical edition of the curriculum (Tibetan collection at the IOM
RAS, call number B9963/3; B. Baradiyn subcollection) is a part of collected
works (gsung-'bum) of dKon mchog rgyal mtshan, the twenty-fourth throne holder
of Labrang. The lamrim teaching is a system of praxis, based upon the concept of
“three individuals”. Tsongkhapa, the founder of the Gelug sect, turned this concept
into the core of his tract the Lamrim Chenmo. The Lamrim Chenmo served as a basis
for a special two-year schedule of debates used at the lamrim faculty.
Key words: Buddhist education, dGe lugs, monastic debate, Labrang, lamrim.
F.L. Sinitsyn. The Political Situation in Tibet in the 1920s (according to
the Materials of Soviet Expeditions) — 323
Summary: The article analyzes the political conditions in Tibet according to
the data gathered by Soviet expeditions organized in the 1920s. Among other aspects,
the roles of different political powers (“Anglophiles”, “Sinophiles”, “Russophiles”, etc.) are considered along with the perception of Soviet Russia by political
leaders and ordinary people of Tibet. A conclusion is made that the Soviet expeditions
to Tibet have contributed significantly to studying the political situation in the
country. However, analytical deductions made by the expeditioners had not been
always adequate, which turned out to be one of the obstacles for developing Soviet-
Key words: Soviet-Tibetan relations, history of Tibet, the 13th Dalai Lama,
Sergey S. Borisov, Elbek-Dorzhi Rinchino, Vassily A. Khomutnikov, Boris Z. Shumyatsky.
E.V. Stolyarova. Vishnu stotra Hymns from the Institute of Oriental
Manuscripts, RAS — 337
Summary: The article deals with Hindu stotra hymns from the collection of
the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, RAS (St. Petersburg), their structure, functions
and meaning in ritual practice. The hymns-prayers to a deity (stotras) are used in the
Hindu religion. A special group of these hymns, nama-stotras, are based on the doctrine
of a divine name which helps devotees to reach protection and deliverance.
Key words: Vishnuism, Vishnu god’s names, India, Hinduism, hindu stotras,
nama-stotra, Sanscrit manuscripts.
A.A. Turanskaya. Mongolian Manuscript of Selected Chapters from Milarepa’s
Collected Songs in the Library of C. Damdinsüren’s Memorial House — 347
Summary: The Tibetan original of Milarepa’s Collected Songs was translated
into Mongolian in the first quarter of the 17th cent. by the eminent translator
Siregetü Güši Čorǰi. In the second half of the 18th cent. this text was blockprinted in
Beijing. By the time of publishing five chapters of the old text were missing and
were newly translated into Mongolian. The article deals with the unique manuscript
of selected chapters from Milarepa’s Collected Songs housed in the library of
Ts. Damdinsuren’s Memorial House (Ulaanbaatar), which seem to partially preserve
the old translation of the chapters that were considered to be missing in the 18th century.
Key words: Mongolian literature, translation, Milarepa, Gurbum, Siregetü
A.D. Tsendina. Academician Tsendin Damdinsuren and the Collection
of his Books — 359
Summary: In the article, the history of the formation and features of the collection
of old books that belonged to the Mongolian scientist, Academician Tsendin
Damdinsuren (1908–1986) are described. This collection is currently placed in his
apartment-museum in Ulanbator. The Tibetan and Mongolian manuscripts and
block-prints of this collection include such monumental treatises as the Ganjur in
Tibetan, printed in the Mongolian capital Ih Hure, the collected works of Mongolian
writers written in Tibetan, Mongolian works of fiction, reference books, ritual books etc.
Key words: Mongolian and Tibetan manuscripts and block-prints, Buddhist
literature, Mongolian and Tibetan literature.
V.V. Shchepkin. The First Japanese Governmental Expedition to the Ainu
Lands (1785–1786) — 371
Summary: This paper covers the first Japanese governmental expedition to
Hokkaido, southern Kuril Islands (Kunashir, Iturup and Urup) and southern Sakhalin
in 1785–1786, which was caused by the rumors of Russians’ expansion to the Kuril
Islands and their contacts with Matsumae domain officials. The purpose of this paper
is to clear up the background and the course of the expedition as well as to analyze
its scientific and political outcome.
Key words: expeditions, Hokkaido, Kuril Islands, Sakhalin, Russia-Japan
relations, Ainu, Matsumae.
N.B. Yampolskaya. Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajnāpāramitā in the Mongolian Translation
by the Oirat Dzay-a Pandita — 391
Summary: In the collection of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the
Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg) there is a manuscript that contains
one of the eight Mongolian translations of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajnāpāramitā sūtra
known today. The last folio of the manuscript, dated, presumably, to the 17th century,
is almost completely damaged, and the Mongolian colophon is lost. However,
certain peculiarities of the lexicon and style of the translation show that its author
was the Oirat Dzay-a pandita.
Key words: the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajnāpāramitā, Dzay-a pandita.
N.S. Yakhontova. The Ocean of Names: Its Editions at the IOM, RAS,
and Other Collections — 402
Summary: The well-known Tibetan-Mongolian dictionary The Ocean of
Names is preserved in many manuscript collections round the world. Based on the
information from the available descriptions and catalogues as well as on access to
some texts (including in absentia), the author provides a detailed description of the
differences between its two major editions and a separate print made from the dried
boards of the first edition.
Key words: manuscript collections, Tibetan-Mongolian dictionaries, The
Ocean of Names dictionary, print, dried printing boards.
The Authors Published in This Issue — 434
Random news: Announcements
On May 28, 2018, at the meeting of the Academic Council of the IOM RAS, leading researcher of the State Hermitage museum A. Pritula will submit his lecture HMML, the Largest Virtual Resource of the Near Eastern Manuscripts: an Attempt at Cataloguing and Study.