Mongolica-XII / Editorial Board: I.V.Kulganek (editor-in-chief), L.G.Skorodumova, T.D.Skrynnikova, K.V.Orlova, N.S.Yakhontova. St Petersburg, 2014. 106 p.
The twelfth edition of Mongolica is dedicated to the 130th anniversary of the birth of the classic of Mongolian studies
in Russia, a member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, an outstanding specialist in the field of Mongolian linguistics,
literature, history and ethnography - Boris Yakovlevich Vladimirtsov (1884-1931). By this momentous date the
complete collected works of Vladimirtsov have been published, and the archive of the scholar has been enriched with materials
deposited with the St. Petersburg Branch of the Archives of RAS by his relatives.
The issue consists of the following parts: Historiography and Source Studies, Literature, Folklore, Linguistics,
Reviews, Our anniversaries, and Our Translations. The articles are written by both distinguished scholars and
young researchers in the field of Mongolian studies. Reviews of new books make the issue topical.
The papers are written in keeping with the research priorities of modern Mongolian studies, with special regard to the
matters of history and culture of the Mongolian peoples, which gives the articles great social, historical and practical
The issue will be of interest not only to the Mongolists, but also to specialists in philology, history and culture, as well as
to those interested in the history of the Mongolian peoples and Central Asia.
Irina V. Kulganek. A Special Consciousness (to the 130th anniversary of B. Ya. Vladimirtsov) - 6
HISTORY, HISTORIOGRAPHY, SOURCE STUDIES
El’za P. Bakaeva. On the question of parallels in ritual culture of the Mongolian Derbets and the Russian Kalmyks
(comment to the diary of Ts.-D. Nominhanov) - 9
The article is devoted to the analysis of the Mongolian Derbet custom of honoring the Old Turkic stone
monument mentioned by Ts.-D. Nominkhanov in his field materials. The author compares this custom with the
Kalmyk ritual of worship of the deity Tsagan aav (White Old Man) in front of the coniferous tree ritual pillar on
the barrows named ova. The work concludes that the stone images and the wooden ritual pillar are sacred objects
connected with ancestor worship that ensure welfare during ritual celebrations — the Ursiyin Nadom of the Mongolian
Derbets and the Urs sar of the Kalmyks.
Key words: Derbets of Mongolia, Kalmyks, papers of Ts.-D. Nominkhanov, ritual culture, stone sculptures,
Nadom, Urs sar, veneration of ancestors, Turkic and Mongolian traditions
Yuriy V. Kuzmin, Aleksandr P. Sukhodolov. Questions of Russian-Mongolian relations in the beginning of the 20th century
(1900—1921): economics, diplomacy, culture - 20
The development of Russian-Mongolian relations in the first quarter of the 20th century, the formation of the
Mongolian national state and the role of Russia in this process are discussed in this article; a modern characteristic
of the study of these problems in Russian and Mongolian historiography is also presented.
Key words: System of international relations, Russian-Mongolian relations, «Mongolian question», Russia-
Mongolia-China, historiography, diplomacy, national interests
D. G. Kukeev. Of the settled Oirat settlements on the territory of Eurasia - 26
There is an information about the features of Oirat stationary settlement’s buildings during the period of the
Late Middle Age in the article. These buildings were constructed on the lands of nomadic Oirats and for Oirats,
which were represented by the disappeared in 18 century nomad people of Zungar Khanship and Kalmyks, who
living in the south part of Russia.
Key words: Oirat, “towns”, buildings, nomads, Central Asia
Maxim V. Os’kin. P. K. Kozlov's “special” Expedition to Mongolia during World War I (1915-1917) - 36
The article deals with the history of the “Special” Expedition of the Ministry of Agriculture to Mongolia
(Монголэкс) during World War I, connected with a mass purchase of cattle and meat. Amid the meat supply crisis
in Russia, connected with the enormous consumption of meat products by the army, meat and cattle purchases
in neighboring countries began to play a great role. The organization of Mongoleks, which was headed by the
known Russian traveler and the expert on Central Asia colonel P. K. Kozlov, became the largest purchasing structure.
As a result of the appropriate performance of the organization, the warehouses and stations of Eastern Siberia
were stocked with meat that could not be shipped to European Russia in due time. The opposition used this fact in
the race for power by spreading news in the press about meat allegedly «decaying» in the winter of 1917 beyond
Ural. Anyway, the Russian purchases of products in Mongolia and Manchuria significantly smoothed the unfavorable
development of the food crisis in Russia. The activity of Mongoleks allowed to supply meat to the Russian
Siberia and partially — to the front of the Russian army.
Key words: “Special” Expedition, purchase of meat products, crisis of meat supply, Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov
LITERARY STUDIES, FOLKLORE STUDIES, LINGUISTICS
Dikyi Palmo. Contemporary Tibetan performers of the epic “Ling Gesar” (Fieldwork summer 2013) - 43
The article, which is based on the fieldwork in Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of the Qinghai province
during July-August 2013, deals with the level of preservation and existence of the oral tradition of the Tibetan
heroic epic “Ling Gesar”.
Key words: Tibetan heroic epic, “Ling Gesar”, precious monument of spiritual culture, contemporary societies,
oral tradition, performers “dronba”
Oles’a A. Sapozhnikova. The evolution of the comic in Mongolian literature of the 20th century - 46
The humour culture of the Mongols has a centuries-long history of development. Every decade and century it
absorbed new shades of different kinds of the comic, such as humour, satire and irony. At the same time it has
preserved its continuity and national flavour. Since the beginning of the 20th century the variety of comic works in
Mongolian literature has been dazzling, keeping strong connection with the traditions of folklore and literature of
the 19th century.
Key words: humorous culture, variety, tradition, kinds of comic, humour, satire
Lidiya G. Skorodumova. The imagery of V. Injinash’s novels - 55
V. Inzhinash was the father of three kinds of novels: historical, domestic (common) and adventure (the novel
with elements of satire and fantasy). He was not only the founder of new prosaic literature, but also the successor
of poetic tradition. His heritage is very rich. The brightness of images and the abundance of metaphors in the
prose of V. Inzhinash are connected with the well-developed poetic tradition of Mongolian literature. Chinese
classical literature also influenced the poetics of V. Inzhinash. The brilliant use of a wide spectrum of traditional
artistic techniques and epic methods of narration allows us to consider V. Inzhinash’s creation an essential part of
the whole literary process in Mongolia.
Key words: artistic methods, national tradition, brigtness of characters, founder of new prosaic literature
Evdokiya E. Khabunova. The Kalmyk parable about the dombra: the genre characteristics of a Kalmyk song variety - 67
The article deals with a folk parable about the functional purpose of the musical instrument dombra, which accompanied
the performance of the Kalmyk folk songs “dombrt keldg dud” (songs performed to the dombra). The
genre nature of the songs is analyzed in close relationship with the dombra.
Key words: folk parable, musical instrument, dombra, Kalmyk folk songs, songs - dialogues
Bal’zira V. El’bikova. The Buddhist phenomenon of ‘torma’ in the original and translated texts of the fairy tales “The
Siddhi-Kür” - 71
The article is devoted to the concept of “torma” in the original and translated texts of the fairy tales “Siddhi-
Kür”. The article analyzes the “depth of perception” of the Buddhist phenomenon of torma which transmits the
national flavour not only in the original text, but also in the translation. The article is of interest to folklorists, ethnographers
and cultural specialists.
Key words: concept torma, a set of fairy tales “Siddhi-Kür”, original and translated texts, ethnic identity
FROM THE ARCHIVES OF THE ORIENTALISTS
K. F. Golstunsky. The Review of the Journey into the Kalmyk Steppe during the Summer of 1886 (Edition, foreword &
commentaries by S. S. Sabrukova) - 75
«The Review of the Journey into the Kalmyk Steppe during the summer of 1886» belongs to the personal collection
of K. F. Golstunsky (1831-1899) kept at the Archives of Orientalists at the IOM RAS. Scientific interests
of K. F. Golstunsky included all aspects of life in the Kalmyk steppe. The author described the purpose of his
journey as an intention to study the spoken Kalmyk language. These materials will be highly interesting for researchers
as well as readers who would like to know more about life and culture of the Kalmyks.
Key words: steppe, yurt, spiritual, Kalmyk woman, Kalmyk language
Tamara G. Basangova. [Review]: Dampilova L. S. Shamanskiye pesnopeniya buryat: simvolika i poetika. 2-e izdaniye,
ispravlennoye i dopolnennoye. M., 2013. (Dampilova L. S. Buryat Shaman songs: symbolism and poetics. M.,
2013. 2-th. Revised and corrected) - 86
Lidia G. Skorodumava. [Review]: Buyanjaya Ts. Mongol uran jokhiolyn tueuekhen tovch. Tergueuen devter. Chuluun
nomoos khuelguen sudart. Ulaanbaatar, 2013 (Buyanjaya Ts. A Brief History of Mongolian Literature. Vol. 1. The
Holy Scripture from the Book of Stone. Ulaanbaatar, 2013) - 87
L. G. Skorodumova. A. D. Tsendina (60 years) - 89
V. V. Svinin, V. A. Vasilenko. Yu. V. Kuzmin (60 years) - 91
Vanchinbalyn Injinash. Kratkiye poyasneniya (Predislovie k “Siney sutre o rastsvete velikoy imperii Yuan’”) (Vanchinbalyn
Injinash. Brief explanations (Preface to “the Blue Sutra of Blossoming of the Great Yuan Empire”)
(transl. by L. G. Skorodumova) - 93
G. Mend Ooyoо. Svoya melodiya (G. Mend Ooyoо. Own melody) (transl. by M. P. Petrova) - 103
Information about the authors - 105
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On March 27, 2019, at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, the Eleventh Scholarly and Practical Conference Travels to the East 2018, will be held.