Mongolica-XI / Editorial Board: I.V.Kulganek (editor-in-chief), L.G.Skorodumova, T.D.Skrynnikova, K.V.Orlova, N.S.Yakhontova. St Petersburg, 2013. 104 p.
Foreword — 6
I. V. Kulganek. A. V. Burdukov — a Mongolist of Difficult and Interesting Destiny — 6
B. M. Narmayev. T. A. Burdukova: Biographical Materials — 11
HISTORIOGRAPHY, SOURCE STUDIES
T. V. Ermakova. The Role of the Russian Geographic Society in Investigation of Buddhist Ethnic Culture of Central Asia — 15
An article deals with scientific and organizational context of expeditions to Mongolia and Tibet which were
initiated or supported by the Russian Geographic Society (RGS). It was explained that at the margine of XIX—
XX c. RGS was very active in the process of expeditional explorations of territories along Russian Asiatic borders
in looking forward to future trade and diplomatic relations. At the base of works by A. M. Pozdneev, G. Tcybicov,
B. Baradiin forming of methods of field research of Tibetan and Mongolian everyday life was explicated and personal
contribution of above mentioned travellers into Buddhist monasteries exploration was evaluated. Exeptional
role of RGS publishing was demonstrated, especially current publishing of expeditional results.
Key words: Russian Geographic Society (RGS), Central Asia expeditions, Buddhist culture, A. M. Pozdneev,
G. Tcybicov, B. Baradiin.
A. Sh. Kadyrbaev. The Idea of Pan-mongolism: from the Ataman Semenov and Baron Ungern to its Collapse — 21
This article devote to history of Mongolia during 1919 year when general Ungern — one leader of Russian
contre-revolution in Western Siberia attacked Mongolian capital — Urga, where were Chinese troops. Ungern
wanted to reestablish pan-mongolian impire in Central Asia but he lost the war and his idea of Pan-mongolism
came to collapse.
Key words: panmongolism, history, White Guard movement, Baron R. F. Ungern, national movement, revolution,
Japan, Mongolia, Alash-Orda, Asian division, panasiatism, Halha, bogdo-gegen.
I. F. Popova. Trade in Russia and China through the Kyakhta Maymaychen — 28
The paper overviews the history of Russian-Chinese commerce through border towns Kyakhta and Maimaicheng.
Focusing on the non-published archives and valuable printed materials it studies the main stages of rise,
evolution and decay of the Kyakta trade, which till the middle of 19 c. made a considerable part of the whole foreign
trade of Russia. In the heyday of Kyakhta the value of commodity there reached millions of rubles. Through
Kayakhta Russia exported furs, baize, pelts, and imported mainly tea. In Kyakhta «the Tea Road» stared and
spread over whole Russia and Europe.
Key-words: Russian-Chinese relations, Kyakhta, Maimaicheng, Kyakhta trade.
LITERARY STUDIES, FOLKLORE STUDIES, LINGUISTICS
A. V. Zorin, A. A. Sizova. The First Beijing Editions of the Gzungs ’dus Collection in Tibetan and Mongolian — 37
The paper focuses on the initial phase of the formation of the Imperial Beijing Redaction of the so-called
Gzungs ’dus, the collection of minor canonical, post-canonical and apocryphal Buddhist texts, first printed in the
Tibetan monastery Rtag brtan in the second quarter of the 17th century, and the core of collection had been previously
composed by Tāranātha, the famous founder of the monastery. Very soon, no later than 1673, the collection
was translated into Mongolian, as a manuscript copy of the Gzungs ’dus kept at the IOM RAS (call number K6)
refers to this year in the colophon. This edition shares some typical features of the contents of the Imperial Beijing
Redaction of the Tibetan Gzungs ’dus but the first dated version of this redaction appeared in 1674 only, i. e. a
year after the Mongolian one. The authors of the paper make a hypothesis that this redaction could appear because
of the Mongolian edition of the collection while the Mongols’ special interest in the Gzungs ’dus must have been
connected with the fact that Zanabazar, the Khalkha Buddhist hierarch, was recognized as Tāranātha’s reincarnation.
The paper is supplied with the archaeographic description of the block print edition of the Mongolian Gzungs
’dus (ca. 1673?) represented with two incomplete copies at the IOM RAS collection (call numbers Q2580/2587,
Key words: Gzungs ’dus, Tāranātha, Tibetan and Mongolian Buddhist Literature, Tibetan and Mongolian
Textology, the IOM RAS collection
E. A. Kantor. «Mani Kabum» in Tibet and Mongolia — 45
This article investigates a Tibetan literary monument — «Mani kabum» (tib. Ma ni bka’ ‘bum) and its translations
into the Mongolian language. Several issues are dealt with, e. g. the Tibetan versions of «Mani kabum», certain
features of this collection of texts in the context of Tibetan Terma tradition, the structure of the collection.
Material concerning the study of its Mongolian translations is summarized as well. It is based on analysis of colophons
corresponding to three different translations, i. e. that of Manjusiri Darhan-lama Zun Avgyn Tsultimlodoi
and Tsogtu Mergen Ubashi (1593), the translation by Gushi Tsorji and Sakya Dondub (1608) and Zaya Pandita
Namkhai-gyamtso’s translation (1644).
Key words: Tibeto-mongolian literature, buddhistic literature, terma, tibeto-mongolian studies
D. A. Nosov. Folktale with Unstable Male/Female Main Character in Mongolian Peoples’ Folklore — 52
The article deals with three buriat folktales and one folktale of khalh-mongols, taken down in the XIX—XX-th
centuries. Comparative analysis of these narratives reveals the phenomenon of unstable gender mark of the main
character in mongolian folktales of the same plot.
Key words: mongolian people’s folklore, folk-tale, system of characters, gender parallels.
Munkhceceg Enkhbat. Onomatopoetic Words in the Manchu-Mongolian Dictionary Compiled under the Emperors’ Order (1717) — 56
Every language has its own onomatopoetic words which are used to denote different sounds which people utter
purposely or involuntary, cries of birds and animals, sound of different kinds of natural fenomena or moving
objects. These words sometimes are included into a wider group of special words, sometimes they are considered
The Manchu-Mongolian dictionary is one of the main dictionaries of that period. It is composed according to
different subjects, and among the wide variety of topics the central one is a man. Still there are chapters which can
be considered as grammar ones. All such chapters (pronouns, particles, numerals) are placed within the large part
«Man». The chapter about the onomatopoetic words is called «Sound and Noise» (Ma. jalgan asuki-i hacin), it
contains the description of different noises made by a man, an animal or an object (total 221 words). The list of
words in the dictionary differs from the known ones (e. g. that of Zakharov). The fact that they were described in a
special chapter shows the high level of the linguistic knowledge of the period.
Key words: onomatopoetic words, Mongolian language, Manchu language, Manchu-Mongolian dictionary
P. O. Rykin. On a Turkic Loanword in the Secret History of the Mongols: MMo. aram ‘(cattle) pen᾿ [?] — 64
The article deals with the Middle Mongolian word aram which occurs as a hapax legomenon in the Secret History
of the Mongols (§ 124). The author examines the problems of phonetic reconstruction and semantics of the
keyword which provoke controversy among the researchers of the monument. The conclusion is made that aram
is an occasional Turkic loanword which is borrowed from Old Turkic aran ‘a stable’, ‘cattle pen’, ‘a stake with a
loop for tethering animals’. The difference in the final consonants between the Old Turkic and the Middle Mongolian
forms is explained too.
Key words: Middle Mongol, the Secret History of the Mongols, Turkic-Mongol language contacts.
A. D. Tsendina. The Didactic Literature in Mongolia (XIII—the middle of XX centuries) — 73
In the article the history of the Mongolian didactic literature since the 13th century and till the middle of the
20th century, stages of its development, genres, themes, and ideas are briefly discussed.
Key words: Mongolian literature, didactic treatises, poetic teachings
N. V. Yampolskaya. A Recently Discovered Khalkha Translation of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā — 85
In 2011 a previously unknown Mongolian translation of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā sutra was found in
a private collection in Khovsgol province, Mongolia. The translation is ascribed to the Khalkha translator Thar pa
pandita. The source (an illustrated manuscript which has only been partly available for research) has a lengthy
colophon, composed in verse by Thar pa pandita himself.
Key words: Ashtasahasrika, Prajnyaparamita, colophon, Thar-pa pandita, Zanabazar, Tushietu-khan, Khalkha.
FROM THE ARCHIVES OF THE ORIENTALISTS
T. I. Yusupova. «Modern Scientific Committee, with further development, is converted into the national Academy of Sciences and arts» Program for the development of the Academic Committee of Mongolia by Ts. Zhamysarano — 91
The article briefly examines the activity of Tsyben Zhamtsarano at the position of the academic secretary of
the Mongolian Scientific Committee in the early 1920s. It was noted that in his work Tsyben Zhamtsarano relied
on the advice and support of the academician S. F. Oldenburg. In organizing the activities of the Scientific
Committee Tsyben Zhamtsarano sought to apply the experience of the Russian Academy of Sciences in
accordance with national, cultural and economic conditions. To this end he developed a long-term plan for the
development of the Scientific Committee and consistently implemented it.
As an attachment the program for the development of the Mongolian Scientific Committee written by Tsyben
Zhamtsarano in 1924 is published.
Key words: Mongolian Scientific Committee, Tsyben Zhamtsarano, S. F. Oldenburg, long-term plan of the
REVIEW AND SCIENTIFIC LIFE
K. V. Orlova. A Review of Publications on Kalmykovedeniye in Russian — 97
I. V. Kulganek. Review: Kalmyk Folklore and Folk Culture in the mid-19th Century. Philological Studies on the Basis of
Gabor Balint of Szentkatolna’s. Budapest, 2011. 380 p. — 99
L. Dashnam. Three Hours with the Devil. Story-recollection (translation from Mong. by A. Solovieva) — 100
T. Bayansan. Hunger and Emptiness (translation from Mong. by О. Sapozhnikova) — 101
B. Dogmid. Mongolian Temper (translation from Mong. by T. Podoliskaya) — 103
List of Contributors
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Random news: Announcements
On October 28, 2019, the conference Far Eastern Culture and Literature dedicated to the 100th birth anniversary of Olga Lazarevna Fishman (1919-1986) will be held in the IOM RAS.