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Grigoryev S. Afghan Historical Sources on the Khirqa of the Prophet Muḥammad // Manuscripta Orientalia. Vol. 8. No. 2. June 2002. P. 5—9.


The halting, gradual spread of Islam in Afghanistan, spaced over nearly a thousand years, led to an abundance of popular Islamic forms of worship there. Because of Afghanistan's distance from the Islamic centres of Arabia, Syria, Iraq and other regions of the Near East, it was not visited by any of the four so-called Rightly-guided caliphs or other great saints of Islam. Yet the country is bursting with graves, mazārs, the ziyārats of caliphs and Muslim saints who, however, never saw those places, local saints, shahīds, haḍrats, mūllās, ḥājjīs, etc. The population venerates various passes, mountain summits, valleys, rivers, cliffs and rocks, groups of trees and simply spots on the map. Today they are linked with the activities of local or pan-Islamic saints; in fact, they are usually throwbacks to past beliefs held by the inhabitants of this poly-confessional and poly-ethnic country...

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