Vol. 18, No. 2 (45)
Journal based in 2004
Full text as a *.PDF file
HISTORY, PHILOSOPHY, PHILOLOGY
Anna A. Turanskaya. A Tibetan Block Print in the Collection of Tibetan Texts from Khara-khoto of the IOM, RAS — 5
Fragments of Tibetan manuscripts and block prints from Khara-Khoto, which were transferred to the
Asiatic Museum after P. K. Kozlov’s Mongolian-Sichuan Expedition, have been insufficiently studied.
As a result of the cataloguing project initiated by researchers of the IOM, RAS, in 2018, an unknown
Tibetan block print drew our attention. The preserved fragment includes two texts dedicated to the
Buddhist deity Manjuśrī. This paper presents a brief archaeographic description of the block print, a
transliteration and translation of the surviving parts of the texts.
Key words: Tibetan block print, Tibetan texts from Khara-Khoto, Manjuśrīnāmasaṃgīti
HISTORY, PHILOSOPHY, PHILOLOGY
Alexander L. Khosroyev. On “Docetic” Christology in Early Christianity. Pt. 2.2 — 24
According to the doctrine of the so-called Docetic Christology, earthly Jesus and heavenly Christ
were two different persons. It was Jesus who suffered on the cross, Christ just entered Jesus’ body for
a while and abandoned it before his death on the cross; consequently, the suffering of Christ was mere
appearance. On the basis of some passages from Gnostic texts containing examples of docetic
Chrstology, the author attempts here to trace the origin of that concept, starting with the New
Testament (Pt. 1: Synoptic Gospels). In the previous part of the article (Pt. 2.1), he analyzed such
Paul’s passages as Rom. 1.3–4 and Gal. 4.4–7; in this part, he is dealing with 1Cor 8.4–6 in order to
find out whether the concept of a pre-existent Jesus is present or not. The author argues in favor of the
latter answer. To be continued.
Key words: New Testament, pre-existence, Docetism, ap. Paul
Sergey L. Burmistrov. The Concept of Store-Consciousness in the Laṅkāvatāra-Sūtra — 36
For the first time, the concept of store-consciousness appears in the Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra. The formative
period of the sūtra dates back to the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, which allows us to suppose that this
concept — one of the fundamental concepts in Yogācāra philosophy — appeared long before the
formation of the Yogācāra itself and, possibly, before the appearance of the Madhyamaka school,
historically the first Mahāyāna Buddhist philosophical school. Store-consciousness is the basis for
seven empirical types of consciousness denoted as the pravṛtti-vijnāna, the “evolving consciousness”.
The attainment of enlightenment is a cessation of the activity of evolving consciousness, but the storeconsciousness
remains free from real and potential afflictions and dispositions determined by karma.
In the sūtra, the concept of store-consciousness is associated with the teaching on three own-beings,
and this shows that the basic Yogācāra notions are fully presented in the sūtra. The causes of evolving
consciousness are: the ignorance concerning the real nature of the objects of the mind; the affliction
proceeding from saṃsāra; the essence of consciousness consisting in the difference between the
subject and the object; and the attraction to forms that support saṃsāra.
Key words: religious and philosophical systems of ancient India, written monuments of Buddhism,
Mahāyāna Buddhist philosophy, Yogācāra, store-consciousness, Buddhist psychology, Laṅkāvatārasūtra,
Tokio Takata. The Concept of “Contemporary Place Names” in the Tibetan Translation of the Da Tang Xiyu Ji — 51
The Da Tang Xiyu ji (“Тhe Great Tang Records on the Western Regions”) was translated into Tibetan
by the Mongolian scholar Gombojab (Mgon-po-skyabs) of the Qing dynasty (1644–1912), using the
original Chinese text of the Qianlong Tripitaka, also called the Dragon Tripitaka. In the manuscript
copy kept at Otani University (Kyoto), interlinear explanatory notes of the “contemporary place
names” are found. The notes on the Central Asian place names might reflect the new geographical
knowledge that Chinese society obtained after Qianlong’s campaigns against the Dzungars. In the
present paper, the author discusses some of these notes. As the notes are not accurate and contain
much misunderstanding, it is hard to use them as research sources. Nevertheless, they reveal the scope
of knowledge of the time and deserve attention.
Key words: Da Tang Xiyu ji, Tibetan translation, Gombojab, Central Asia, place names
HISTORY AND HISTORIOGRAPHY
TEXTOLOGY, CODICOLOGY, PALEOGRAPHY, ARCHEOGRAPHY
Peter Zieme. “Listen to the Masters!”: An Old Uyghur Praise of the Buddha Maitreya — 64
The veneration of Maitreya is one of the important specifics of Old Uyghur Buddhism. There are
numerous praises expressing the fervent wish to meet Maitreya, the Buddha of the future. Many of
these praises are written in quatrains with strophic alliteration. In this paper, three fragments of the
Serindia Collection of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences
(IOM, RAS) are published. Of special interest are some probable references to Chan Buddhism.
Key words: Old Uyghur Buddhism, veneration of Maitreya, praises, poems in strophic alliteration
Nie Hongyin. A Tangut Primary Reader A Brief Collection by Taizong Kept at the IOM, RAS — 80
The previously undeciphered manuscript inv. No. 5875 preserved at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts,
Russian Academy of Sciences, proves to be a Tangut version of a primary reader. Its Chinese
original is an inconsistently miscellaneous compilation of ancient literary allusions and contemporary
folk maxims. The text combines the two distinct literary styles of antithetical couplet and ordinary
prose and has no easily defined subject. Although its Chinese original has not been found yet, and the
whole text has not been thoroughly deciphered so far, the present article offers a tentative translation
of some of its stories in order to lay a foundation for further studies.
Key words: Tangut; translation; primary reader; antithetical couplet; folk maxim
COLLECTIONS AND ARCHIVES
Lola N. Dodkhudoeva. A Unique Manuscript of the Shibanid Epoch from the Fund of the Center of the Written Heritage of Tajikistan — 114
The article introduces the results of a preliminary study of the unique work, the Manaqib al-khulafa’
(“The Virtues/Excellences of the Caliphs”) compiled by Qawam ad-Din Muhammad al-Husaini al-
Sanaujiradi al-Ziyaratgahi al-Harawi in 997/1588. This is a response to the protest message of the
Shiites of Herat, who survived the siege and capture of the city by the Sunnis — the Shibanid troops.
The Manaqib recreates the early stages of the history of Islam before the split caused by the
difference in the understanding of principles of the supreme political power (elective or hereditary)
transfer and reveals the virtues of the four righteous caliphs. Fragments of the Qur’an and hadiths
cited in the treatise present irrefutable evidence of the Sunnis’ superiority over Shiism. The treatise is
an excellent example of polemical literature of bitter ideological struggle between two orthodoxies —
Sunni and Shiite — and contains valuable information on the religious and political history of Eurasia
in the premodern period.
Key words: Manaqib al-khulafa’, rashidun, confessionalization, sabaqat precedents, “the people of
the Sunna and community”, Shiites, Neo-Genghisids
Youli A. Ioannesyan. Conference in Memory of O. F. Akimushkin (St. Petersburg, February 17, 2021) — 133
Buddhist Tradition of Tantras in Tibet. Translation from Tibetan, Foreword, Introduction and Glossary by Raisa N. Krapivina. St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoria, 2020, 384 pp. (Elena Yu. Kharkova) — 140
Youli A. Ioannesyan. The Babi Faith: Pages of History, Sources and the Teaching. Supplemented with images of related manuscripts’ pages. 2nd edition, corrected and updated. St. Petersburg: Herzen RGPU, 2020. 388 pages, with illustrations (Valeriy G. Litvinchuk) — 144