of the Orient
Vol. 17, No. 4 (43)
Journal based in 2004
The entire issue as a *.PDF file
Ayşe Kiliç Cengiz, Anna A. Turanskaya. Old Uyghur Sitātapatrā dhāra¹ī Fragments Housed in the State Hermitage Museum — 5
Due to the publication of N. Pchelin and S.-C. Rashmann’s article, “Turfan Manuscripts in the State
Hermitage — a Rediscovery” (2016), it became obvious that some some fragments of manuscripts
and blockprints in different languages, originally discovered during the four German Turfan expeditions
(1902–1914) and later exhibited at the Museum fur Volkerkunde (Berlin), are currently kept
nowadays in the depot of the State Hermitage Museum. The present article deals with two Old Uyghur
fragments of the Sitātapatrā dhāraṇī blockprinted during the Yuan era. This paper presents a
codicological description of the fragments, transcription, transliteration, translation and facsimiles of
the surviving parts of the text.
Key words: Old Uyghur Buddhist literature, Old Uyghur blockprinted editions during the Yuan era,
Tatiana A. Pang. The Manchu-Chinese Gaoming 誥命 Diploma (B 108 mss) from the Collection of the IOM RAS — 24
The imperial diploma in Manchu and Chinese (call number B 108 mss) is dated 1651 and is one of
the earliest diplomas of this kind from the collection of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, RAS.
The diploma was issued posthumously to the parents of the Manchu statesman Wehe (Chinese name — Wuhei) as an imperial gratitude for bringing up a filial and virtuous son. His father Cakanai
got two titles: doro de aisilaha amban and the same title as his son — jingkini hafan of the first
grade, while his mother from the Giyoro clan was given a title of unenggi hehe of the first grade. The
publication of this diploma belongs to a series of publications of similar diplomas from the collection
of the IOM, RAS.
Key words: the Qing dynasty, Manchu-Chinese diplomas, gaoming, scrolls, the Institute of Oriental
Manuscripts RAS, Manchu manuscripts
Alexandr L. Khosroyev. On Docetic Christology in Early Christianity. Pt. 2.1 — 33
According to the doctrine of so-called docetic Christology, earthly Jesus and heavenly Christ were
two different persons; it was Jesus who suffered on the cross, Christ just entered Jesus’ body for a
while and abandoned it before his death on the cross; consequently, the suffering of Christ was mere
appearance. On the basis of some passages from Gnostic texts containing examples of docetic
Christology, the author attempts here to trace the origin of that concept, starting with the New
Testament (Pt. 1: Synoptic Gospels); in this part of the article, he deals with Paul’s and Deutero-
Pauline letters (Pt. 2). To be continued.
Key words: Early Christianity, New Testament, Apostle Paul, docetism.
Viacheslav M. Rybakov. Administering Punishments under the T’ang Dynasty Criminal Law — 52
Every legal system includes, as one of its main elements, a system of the implementation of sentences
issued by the courts. However, the administration of punishments is always connected with violence
against people, and sometimes even with their execution. The extent to which such violence was restricted
so as to be acceptable to the collective sense of justice is an eloquent characteristic of the very concepts of justice inherent in culture as a whole. This article uses the example of the Chinese T’ang
dynasty criminal law to analyze what restrictions were provided by the traditional Chinese law for
state violence against convicted criminals, and what penalties for government employees, who violated
Key words: traditional China, state and law, criminal law, the T’ang dynasty
HISTORY AND HISTORIOGRAPHY
Oxana V. Tikhonova, Larisa A. Shakunova. Red and Black Marginalia in the Quran from Toledo — 66
The Toledo Quran is the only manuscript in Aljamiado containing the full Quranic text. Manuscript
T 235 differs from others by its significant number of marginalia in Arabic, Spanish and Aljamiado.
The text is divided into parts—prayers, muqaṭṭa‘a, brief corrections, notes to the text—and features
decorated letters and drawings. Marginalia are written in black and red ink. The distinguishing feature
of the Toledo Quran is that red ink, while being used for the decorative purposes, has a wider range of
significance (for instance, to highlight the sura’s title and the ayat order). The particularity of Quran
in Aljamiado is the inclusion of exegetical comments, usually borrowed from tafsirs, into the text
corpus. These comments are highlighted in red in the Toledo Quran.
Thus, the ink color of marginalia on the whole coincides with that of the text, without taking into
consideration the usage of red ink in marginalia on pages 1–105r inclusive. The numbers of ḥizbs are
in red as well as those of ayats. This color is used for decorative purposes.
The inconsistent usage of color for juz’s numbers allows us to make an assumption that the scribe could
have made the decision about using the color in his own manner, without basing its usage on that which
is employed in the manuscript he copied. Furthermore, the inconsistency in juz’s designation leads to a
conclusion that text division was not copied from the original manuscript but introduced by the scribe.
The corrections of exegetical comments are written in red as well as the comments.
Key words: Aljamiado, Quran of Toledo, T 235, marginalia, red ink, exegetical comments
Maxim V. Fionin. The Menology of Lectionary D 227 from the Collection of the IOM RAS: Liturgical Reading for the Feast Day of the Placing of the Cincture (Girdle) of the Virgin Mary — 77
The article briefly describes the menology section of lectionary D 227 from the collection of the
Institute of Oriental Manuscripts. In the 19th century, the manuscript belonged to the monastery of
St. George Al-Humaira in Syria, where it was restored by monks. Unfortunately, the restoration was
poorly done and some pages at the end of the manuscript have changed their position. The author
explores the origin of the early liturgical reading from Lk 19: 1–10 (about Zacchaeus) on the church
feast the Girdle of Virgin Mary. Не suggests that the reading about Zacchaeus (Lk 19:1–10) could have appeared in the Constantinople’s lectionaries of the 7th–14th centuries under the influence of the
Key words : liturgical research, Byzantine lectionaries, manuscript D 227, menology, the collection
of the IOM RAS
COLLECTIONS AND ARCHIVES
“I’m Doing Well in the Center of Siberian World under Strict Police Supervision…”: F. I. Knauer’s Letters from his Tomsk Exile in 1915–1917. Part 2 (letters 8–21). Preface, publication and commentaries by Elena N. Gruzdeva — 94
The article introduces the letters of the Professor of the Kiev University, Sanskrit scholar Fyodor
Ivanovich (Friedrich) Knauer (1849–1917) sent by him to his colleague, philologist Vladimir
Nikolaevich Peretz. They are now housed at the Personal Fund of V.N. Peretz in the Russian State
Archive of Literature and Art (RGALI. Fond 1277. Inv. 1. F. 35). This set of letters is undoubtedly of
great importance because, among other things, we have no other surviving epistolary heritage of the
scholar. Revealing the author’s personality, the letters (there are only 21 of them) acquaint us to some
extent with his inner world. Until recently, F. I. Knauer’s biography, especially the years of his exile,
was full of blank spots which we can finally fill. The entire sequence of events relating to Knauer’s
arrest, up to his arrival in Tomsk and life in Siberia, is presented by him as an uninterrupted narrative.
The letters give us an idea of relations between the scholar, when he was out of favor, and his
colleagues, friends, common people, local and higher authorities. They provide reliable documentary
evidence of the terrible misfortune of a sincere person, who fell victim to a complicated political
Key words: epistolary heritage, Sanskrit scholar F. I. Knauer, anti-German sentiment of 1914,
political exile, Tomsk, Academy of Sciences, V. N. Peretz
Kristina V. Korosteleva. “Innovative” Materials in the Conservation of Uyghur Manuscripts from the Collection of the Asian Museum in the Early 20th Century — 112
The major part of Old Uyghur manuscript and block printed fragments preserved nowadays in the
Serindia collection of the IOM, RAS require conservation and preservations procedures. Discovered
during various archaeological and research expeditions to Eastern Turkestan, as also purchased from
the local people of Turfan oasis, these fragments were in urgent need of conservation at the moment
they were transferred to the Asiatic Museum. As conservation laboratory and skilled staff were absent
at that time the conservation procedures were conducted by the researchers of the materials. The article deals with the analysis of one of the methods used for preserving fragments which was used at the
beginning of the 20th c.
Key words: Serindia collection, Old Uyghur fragments conservation and preservation, adhesive,
dry mounting paper
Tatiana V. Ermakova. Conference “Current Problems of Buddhist Studies–9”. V. I. Rudoy’s 80th Anniversary (06.02.1940–29.08.2009) (St. Petersburg, February 26, 2020) — 118
Herat M. (ed.). Buddhism and Linguistics: Theory and Philosophy. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, xvii + 191 pp. (Sergey L. Burmistrov) — 121
Walravens H. Eugen Pander und seine lamaistische Sammlung. Rekonstruktion der als Kriegsverlust geltenden bedeutenden ehemaligen Berliner Bestände.Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies, 2019, 230 рp. (Bibliographia Philologica Buddhica. Series Major, VI) (Alexander V. Zorin) — 129
Brosalina Elena Kirillovna (1931–2020) (Ekaterina A. Kostina, Evgeniia P. Panina, Anna V. Chelnokova, Olga V. Mazhidova, Aleksei A. Nikiforov) — 134