of the Orient
Journal based in 2004
Issued twice a year
Table of Contents and some parts (in Russian) as a *.PDF file
To the 125th Anniversary of W.A. Ivanow
From editors. Wladimir Alexeevich Ivanow (1886-1970) — 5
B.V. Norik. W.A. Ivanow’s Memoires in the Archive of Orientalists (IOM RAS) — 6
This short article is a preliminary survey of W.A. Ivanow’s Memoirs stored at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, RAS (St. Petersburg).
A.I. Kolesnikov. Correspondence between W.A. Ivanow and H. Corbin (1947-1966) — 10
The correspondence of W.A. Ivanow and H. Corbin was published 12 years ago, but had not been properly appreciated till now. The edition contains 89 letters, including 75 ones written by Ivanow and addressed to Corbin (65), to his wife Stella Corbin (9) and to the French diplomat F. Max (1). 13 letters of Corbin had been addressed to Ivanow. The contents of the correspondence are quite diverse, but they are mainly related to their professional and scholarly activities, including the activities of the Islamic Society, collection and publication of the Ismaili related works, exchange of academic literature, visits to Ismaili sites, etc. It is also interesting to note Ivanow΄s impressions on his participation at international congresses of orientalists, meeting with scholars, his ideas about the state of Iranian studies, and his contacts with Soviet Orientalists.
A.А. Khismatulin. W. Ivanow about the Ahl-i Haqq Teachings — 16
In 1953 W. Ivanow published several original texts in the Series of the Ismaili Society regarding the Ahl-i Haqq teachings. The volume was entitled The Truth-Worshippers of Kurdistan. Ahl-i Haqq Texts. He also supplied it with his English translation of the texts. On the basis of these texts and the publications of V.F. Minorsky, the first orientalist who initiated scholarly studies of these teachings, Ivanow wrote a rather extended research which encouraged further publication of the texts. At the same time, he repeatedly stated that information is quite scarce and it was too early to make any definitive conclusions. Since then, little has changed in the Russian Oriental studies. However, the Western and Iranian scholars conducted new studies which allow appreciating the contribution of W. Ivanow in this field.
P.V. Basharin. Stories about Saint Hallaj in the Pamirs in the Context of Sufi Hagiographical Tradition — 20
The figure of al-Hallaj stands out from the number of charismatic Muslim mystics on account of his originality and popularity among the Iranian and Turkic peoples of Central Asia. The eminent figure of al-Hallaj among Muslims is emphasized by stories about him that spread over the periphery of the Muslim world, including the Pamir Mountains. He is revered as the father of forty holy chiltans among the Ismailis of the Pamirs. There is a curious legend about his death there. This version shows the degree of mixing of reinterpreted classic themes from the hagiography of al-Hallaj with local substrate. It is comparable to some texts that shaped his hagiography.
Ye.I. Kychanov. A Tangut Document (the State Xi Xia) in the Chinese Language — 24
The article describes a Tangut state document dated 1222. The text is written in Chinese and was probably found in Dunhuang in the early 20th c. This is the reason why the document is stored as part of in the Chinese collection of Dunhuang materials. It is an agreement on renting a bakery for cooking flat cakes by a Tangut family. The document reveals economic relations of small business in the Xi Xia state.
N.V. Kozyreva. Two Cuneiform Tablets Related to Urban Property from the Beginning of the 2nd Millennium B.C. from South Mesopotamia (YOS VIII 153, YOS XII 307) — 28
In this article, the author tries to demonstrate using as an example some cuneiform texts connected with the activity of a certain Amurrum-tillassu that the sale or alienation of urban real estate in South Mesopotamia at the beginning of the 2nd Millennium B.C. was regulated or even restricted as it had been in the end of the 3rd millennium. Two texts (YOS VIII 153, YOS XII 307) are given in the author’s translation and transliteration.
Z.A. Yusupova. The ‘Divan’ of Rencuri a 18th Century Kurdish Poet (Transcription, Translation, Examples, Ghazals) — 38
The present publication contains the full text of the “Divan” of Rencuri (Mela ‘Umeri Zengine) (in the Gorani dialect of Kurdish) in Latin transcription and also a Russian translation of 17 ghazals. The work is based on the text of the “Divan” of Rencuri, published (from privately owned manuscripts) in 1983 in Baghdad by Muhemed ‘Eli Qeredaghi. This literary work is valuable both as a source for dialectological studies and as an example of Kurdish medieval literature. The practical value of this publication consists in the fact that it makes it available to the Kurds in the Turkish Kurdistan who use a Latin-based alphabet.
HISTORY OF ORIENTAL STUDIES IN PERSONS
L.Ya. Medvedeva (T.Yu. Yevdokimova) — 59
O.S. Nikolaeva (V.V. Schepkin) — 60
O.D. Berlev (I.V. Bogdanov) — 62
I.T. Kaneva. Parenthetic Clause in Sumerian (Based on Texts of Neo-Sumerian Period) — 64
The method of including additional information about a member of sentence in the form of parenthesis is often used both in business texts of Old Sumerian period and in texts of Neo-Sumerian period.
Types of parenthetic clauses in business, legal and administrative documents of this period differ in number of components (sentences with two components and sentences with an unnamed subject) and in type of predicate (verbal and nominal).
In literary texts under consideration the author discovers parenthetic clauses with an unnamed subject located at the beginning of the sentence.
An unusual position of parenthetic clauses can be explained by the omission of an explicative member located at the beginning of the sentence and expressed by a personal pronoun. Personal pronouns are expressed by corresponding personal indexes in the predicate. Thus the tendency to a sparing use of language resources leads to the omissions of personal pronoun which becomes a standard for the Sumerian language.
S.R. Tokhtas’ev. Aus den Kommentaren zu “De administrando imperio” (DAI) des Konstantinos Porphyrogennetos — 75
I. Wenn das aruss. Тъмуторокань (< *Tŭmątăr_kān-jĭ < *Tŭmăntăr(_)kān-jĭ) auf aturk. (khazar.?) *Tuman-Tarqān zuruckfuhren konnte, so weist griech. Ταμάταρχα auf ein anderes Etymon hin, etwa *Tama-tarxān. Die beiden Formen entsprechen der Etymologie von M. Vasmer aus *Taman-tarxān, vgl. orkhon. turk. taman tarqan, ein Titel oder Teil eines Personennamens) nur teilweise. Der Unterschied a ~ u kann man durch Labialisierung erklaren; zum Abfall des -ν im Auslaut des Ταμάταρχα vgl. z.B. Βασπαρακά < Βασπαρακάν < armen. Vaspurakan. Aber das Ausbleiben des inlautlichen -ν- bzw. *-n- weist auf eine andere Bildung hin, vielleicht von demselben Verbalstamm tam- (tum-) ‘tropfen’, ‘sickern’. Es handelt sich also offensichtlich um Varianten, die unabhangig aus verschiedenen turkischen Sprachen des nordlichen Schwarzmeersteppengebiets stammen.
II. Die Herausgeber des DAI emendieren von alters her das handscriftliche Νεκρόπηλα (die modern Landzunge Tendra am Schwarzen Meer), d.h. ‘Die Totensumpfe’ in Νεκρόπυλα ‘die Tore der Toten’, was m.E. ganz uberflussig ist, weil dieselbe Lesung Νεκρόπηλα auch bei Nikephoros und Theophanes handschiftlich bezeugt ist und daruber hinaus sich auch durch turk. Olu-denizi ‘Die Totensumpfe’ bestatigen lasst.
E.P. Ostrovskaya. On the Subject of Buddhist Philosophy — 87
The article is devoted to analysis of the early Buddhist philosophical texts which were known as canonical Abhidharma. The study focuses on particular and specific features of the subject of Buddhist philosophy. The article also touchs upon some questions concerning the history of Buddhist studies.
I.S. Gurevich. Diachronic View in Studies on the Language of the Texts with Identical Plots but Different in Genre and Epoch (14-16th Centuries): Results Obtained — 97
The paper should be considered a final part summarizing the previous publications on the matter under review (see Written Monuments of the Orient No. 1(10) 2009. P. 131–141; No. 1(12) 2010.
P. 126–137; No. 1(14) 2011. P. 65–78) or, in other words, a conclusive step in the investigation into the comparison of the grammatical structure of texts identical in topics but different in genres and epoch (Pinghua and Novels). At the same time comparison of the differences in the grammatical characteristics between the novels themselves that were taken as source material (Investiture of the Gods, Three Kingdoms and The Legend of the Kingdoms of the Eastern Zhou) was undertaken whereafter the reasons for the differences (the vernacular tradition on the one hand and the historical basis on the other) were revealed.
HISTORY AND HISTORIOGRAPHY
I.V. Bogdanov. Lebanese Wood xntj-S in the Egyptian Sources of the Old Kingdom — 112
Overview of evidences of the toponym xntj-S “Lebanon” and the term xntj-S “Lebanese wood” in the Old Kingdom texts: 1. The inscription in the tomb of Daw at Deir el-Gebrawi; 2. The inscription on the stele of pAj from Naga ed-Deir; 3. The list of religious items from the archive of the mortuary temple of king Neferefra (mid-5th–6th dynasties); 4–5. The inscriptions of jnj; 6. The Palermo fragment of the Annals from the reign of Shepseskaf.
M.I. Vorob’уova-Desyatovskaya. Academician V.P. Vassilyev on the History of Buddhist Philosophy (Tibetan and Chinese Sources) — 132
Vassily Pavlovitch Vassilyev was born in Nizhny Novgorod on February 20, 1818, into a family of a common clerk. As there were no prospects for the boy to receive a good education, he entered a local school at the age of 6, but had to leave it three years later in order to start working in the regional court of law as a copyst. In 1827 his father managed to send him to a lyceum which the boy finished in 1834. In the same year, he was admitted into the Department of History and Philology of the Kazan University. The talented pupil graduated from the University in 1837. In the same year Vassilyev defended his thesis and got the Candidate’s degree in Mongolian literature. Two years later, Vassilyev defended his dissertation “On the Basics of Buddhist Philosophy” and became a fullfledged Master of Arts.
Due to his outstanding achievements, Vassilyev was invited to join Russian missionaries in Peking where he could study Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Chinese. In 1840, Vassilyev left for Peking.
In Peking, he subsequently stayed for 10 years without leaving the city even once. Those 10 years of hard work turned out to be the most difficult ones.
Russia disappointed him. Out of the studies he had written and prepared for print, only two were published: “Buddhism, Its Dogma, History, and Literature”, part 1, and “History of Buddhism in India by Daranata” part 3.
Vassilyev became the first Russian who made a systematic review of Buddhist thinking and its development.
Besides, he was one of the first scholars to declare the necessity of an adequate language required to describe the Budddhist spiritualism, to choos European analogues for Buddhist categories, such as “salvation”, “vision”, “holiness”, “divine”,“sin”, etc.
In 1851-1852 Vassilyev wrote a curriculum of courses in Chinese and Manchu. He wrote about the necessity to study China and its culture. He did not share the fear of the “yellow menace”.
S.L. Burmistrov. Indian Historians of Philosophy in 20th Century: Changing the Attitude — 138
A change in the role that Vedānta plays in modern Indian philosophy is demonstrated on the basis of philosophical systems of S. Dasgupta, S. Radhakrishnan, P.J. Chaudhury, Daya Krishna and J.N. Mohanty. The role of Vedānta becomes less prominent in the “academic” Indian philosophy, but the system retains its significance as a conceptual background fixed not in discourse but in language.
Yu.A. Ioannesyan. The Concept of the “Manifestations of God’s Will” in Babism and the Baha’i Religion — 151
The article is a study of the concept of the “Manifestations of God’s Will” based on primary sources. This concept, which goes back to Babism, has been substantially developed, elaborated and finalized in the Baha’i religion. The author considers not only the different aspects of the subject but also some key notions closely related to it, such as the “Divine Will” and the “progressive Revelation.”
The analysis of material which starts with Shaikhi sources shows that, though the notion of “God’s Will” as a creative divine principle also exists in Shaikhism while its analogues are common to some other schools of philosophy and trends in religious thought, the concepts of the “Manifestations of God’s Will” and the “progressive Revelation” as a complete and comprehensive teaching are unique to Babism and the Baha’i religion.
O.Q. Mehtiyeva. From the History of the Baha’i Community in Russia and USSR. Eye-Witness Memoires — 174
The article presents eye-witness accounts of some events related to the birth and existence of the first organized Baha’i community in the world which originated outside of Iran in the 19th century in Ashkhabad. A prominent place in the article is accorded to the fate of the first Baha’i temple in the world designed by the Russian architect Volkov which was raised in that land and demolished in the 60s of the 20th century as well as to Baha’i believers who fell victim to repressions.
COLLECTIONS AND ARCHIVES
Ya.V. Vassilkov. New Data on the First Russian Indologist: Letters of Gerasim Lebedev to Ivan Krusenstern — 188
Five letters of Gerasim Lebedev (1749-1817), a musician, traveler and the first Russian student of Indian culture to Ivan Krusenstern (1770-1846), a Russian naval officer who later became the leader of the first Russian circumnavigation of the world (1803-1806) and an admiral of the Imperial Navy, are published for the first time. The letters contain significant new data pertaining to the unfortunate circumstances of Lebedev’s departure from Calcutta in 1797, his hardships on board the Lord Thurlow, an East Indiaman, the problems he faced during his stay in London, and lastly, his return to Russia.
The letters also indirectly add new traits to the figure of the young Krusenstern as a devoted friend, a man shorn of class prejudices, and a true patriot of Russia.
K.M. Bogdanov. Regarding a Part of N.P. Lihachiov’s Collection in IOM RAS — 207
This article is a description of “oriental” objects from the collection of the famous collector, specialist on Russian and European medieval art N.P. Lihachiov (1862–1936) which are stored at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, RAS. With the exception of a few items, these books and other documents in eastern languages are not well-known to orientalists. So, the main goal of this article is to attract the attention of researchers to this comparatively small but remarkable collection. Symbolically, this article is timed to the 150th anniversary of Lihachiov’s birth.
T.A. Tchernaja. Carl Ivanovich Maximowicz, a Distinguished Russian “Botanical Orientalist” of the 19th Century — 212
The article outlines a leading role of Carl Maximowicz in the process of scientific research of Asian flora including his personal professional input, creation by him of a major world center concentrating many important botanical collections from Japan and his services as expert and organizer of international efforts for studying Japanese flora. In particular, the relationship between Russian scientist and his Japanese collaborators and colleagues is discussed. For the first time special attention is given to the issue of collecting Japanese wood-block prints and manuscripts.
P.P. Muratov. The Cycle “Towards the Sun”: “First Days in Tokyo” and “Tokyo Life” (Publication and Introduction by K. Marandjian) — 242
The publication introduces to the readers two essays from the cycle “Towards the Sun” written by the famous Russian art critic, journalist and historian Pavel Muratov during his trip to Japan in 1933-1934 for the Russian emigrant newspaper Vozrozdenie (Paris). The essays - “First Days in Tokyo” and “Tokyo Life” - provide readers with a vivid and picturesque image of the Japanese capital of the 1930s.
P.S. Teptyuk. St. Petersburg Manuscript of the Maqāmāt by al-‘Abbās and its “Analogue” in the Austrian National Library — 251
This article is devoted to comparison of two unstudied manuscripts entitled Maqāmāt al-‘Abbās, written by certain al-‘Abbās in the 16th century. The first one (B 66 at St.-Petersburg Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences) was the only codex known for us until another (N.F.66) was found at the Austrian National Library recently. Comparison of the manuscripts showed that the texts of both B 66 and N.F.66 are identical except occasional variant readings, which do not affect the meaning. The article provides history of the manuscripts and lists essential codicological particularities, which the catalog descriptions have omitted.
S.M. Iakerson. Ashkenazic Manuscript as a Part of Karaite History. On a Unique Discovery in the Manuscript Department of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Academy of Sciences of Russia — 259
This publication introduces a newly discovered fragment of Hebrew manuscript that was copied in Ashkenaz (Germany or Central/North France) in the second half of the 13th or in the beginning of the 14th century. This masterpiece of Hebrew calligraphy was donated by the Karaite community leader Solomon Beim to Prince Michael Vorontzov in the city of Chufut Kale (Crimea) in 1851 and later on became part of the collection of Nikolai Likhachev. The article gives a detailed description of the fragment and analyzes its role in shaping the “new doctrine” of Karaite history.
B.V. Norik. To the 125th Birth Anniversary of W.A. Ivanow. Ismaili Tradition and Spirituality of the People of the Pamirs in the Works of Russian Scholars. The Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, RAS, St Petersburg; The Institute of Ismaili Studies, London, UK. December, 7-9, 2011, IOM RAS, St. Petersburg, Russia — 268
Ye.P. Ostovskaya. The 5th Oriental Readings in Memory of O.O. Rosenberg — 271
T.A. Pang. The Far Eastern Seminar at the IOM RAS — 274
T.V. Yermakova. The Days in Memory of P.S. Pallas in the Town Pallasovka — 276
V.G. Lysenko. Direct and Indirect Perception: Discussion between Buddhist and Brahman Philosophers (Slow Reading) [the Texts] (Ye.P. Ostrovskaya) — 278
A.A. Nepomnyaschy. Devotees to the Crimean Studies (L.V. Orel) — 281
Grażyna Zając. Smutna ojczyzna i ja smutny... Kręgi literackie epoki Abdülhamita II w świetle tureckiej autobiografii (G. Miškinene) — 284
V.A. Livshic. Parthian Onomasties (M.I. Vorob’yova-Desyatovskaya) — 286
I.V. Gerasimov. The History of Social Journalism in Sudan (O.B. Frolova) — 289
Yury Ashotovich Petrosyan — 292