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WMO 2(15), 2011 Print E-mail



of the orient




Journal based in 2004

Issued twice a year


Table of Contents as a *.PDF file


The Gilgamesh Epic (Ša naqba īmuru, Tabl. I). Translation from Akkadian and Commentary by V.A. Jakobson5
This is the beginning of a new translation of the famous poem. It is to include the new fragments of the text and to maintain as completely as possible the classic translation made by I.M. Diakonoff.

A.I. Kolesnikov. “Jāmāsp-nāme” (“The Book of Jāmāsp”). Introduction and Annotated Translation from Persian, Supplied with a Facsimilé of the Original Text — 15
While translating the text of the persianized “Jāmāsp-nāme” in manuscript C 1869 from collection of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts (St. Petersburg), the author also used a similar text of Manu- script Ousley, 44, from Bodleyan library (Oxford) and collated those with the printed text of the “Persian Jâmâspi” in J. Modi’s edition.
Key words: “Jamasp-name”, Pahlavi version, Persian version, Pazend version, Zarathushtra, Gushtasp, Jamasp.

Yu.L. Kroll. Ban Gu’s Postface (zan) to Jia Yi’s Biography in “The Han History (Han shu)”. Introduction, Translation, Comments — 40
The article presents an annotated translation of the postface, zan (literally “eulogy”, figuratively “appraisal”), to the “narration” or “biography” of the Early Han thinker, official and poet Jia Yi (201-169 B.C.) by the historian Ban Gu (32-92 B.C.). The zan conveys the historian’s personal judgements or remarks on the contents of chapters of the Han shu, including evaluations of persons treated in its “narrations” or “biographies” (zhuan). Ban Gu believed “the erudite” Jia Yi to have been an outstanding statesman at the court of emperor Wen-di’s (180–157 B.C.) and expresses regret for Wen-di, who failed to entrust him with a post of which he was worthy: because of the court intrigues of envious colleagues he was never appointed a minister; he eventually died a premature death. Having given the man his due, Ban Gu criticizes changes in official ideology and institutions proposed by Jia Yi, namely to hold in esteem as the patron of the Han dynasty the “element (or phase)” of earth, to honour the yellow colour and the number five; as regards its foreign policy, he advised to attract win over and undermine the Xiongnu within the framework of the peaceful policy, of “establishing harmony and close relationship” (he qin 和親) with them; as to the historian himself, he believed that the house of Han should rely on the “element” of fire and honour it and the red colour, while in its foreign policy it should “lead [them] like horses and oxen are led by a halter (ji mi 羈靡)”. In his comments, Kroll undertakes a study of the terms, in which Ban Gu described Wen-di’s way of government and in which Jia Yi couched his advices.


L.K. Pavlovskaya, O.P. Petrova, I.Sh. Shifman, S.A. Shkolyar54


G.Ch. Kaplan. Causal Clauses with the Relative Pronoun ša in Akkadian63
Akkadian subordinate clauses introduced by the determinative-relative pronoun ša (ša-clauses) used to form subject, object, relative and adverbial clauses of time. On the basis of Prism A of Assurbanipal as well as Neo-Assyrian letters it is possible to conclude that ša-clauses could also be used as causal clauses. The Standard Babylonian syntax of Prism A of Assurbanipal could be then influenced by colloquial Neo-Assyrian.

A.G. Perikhanyan. On the Origin of the Pavlikianian Sect67
The article is devoted to the problem of the Pavlikianian sect’s name origin. It is stated that the Middle-Persian and Parthian term pāvlīk is based on the Armenian word pāvlīk [= (the Apostle) “Paul’s follower”]. The sect originated among Iranian-speaking Сhristians in ca. 3rd-I4th centuries A.D. as a protest movement against the hierarchization of the Ecumencial Church.

E.P. Ostrovskaya. On the Genre of “Abhidharmakośa-bhāshya” (“The Encyclopaedia of the Buddhist Canonical Philosophy”) of Vasubandhu (4th-5th cent.)70
The article deals with the genre of the autocommentary (bhāshya) on “Abhidharmakośa-karikas” of Vasubandhu (4-5th cent.). Discussing the relations between the basic text and the autocommentary, the author shows the distinctive features of bhashyā as a course of theoretical lectures. The treatise is characterized as the encyclopaedia of Abhidharma theoretical thinking. Basing her reasoning on syntactic and grammatical analysis of the introductory fragment of “Abhidharmakośa-bhāshya”, the author comes to the conclusion that the language used in this treatise is classical scholarly Sanskrit.

S.H. Shomakhmadov. Mangala Symbols in Manuscripts from Gilgit and Central Asia94
Symbols that often occur in early Sanskrit manuscripts from Gilgit and Central Asia are analyzed in this article. The author concludes that the vast majority of symbols considered in the article should be interpreted as a mangala-formula om. Also, the article contains the assumption that the presence of mangala-shloka in Sanskrit manuscripts point to the need of some mangala-practices (performing a special worship ritual or yogic meditation), confirming the thesis of the indissoluble unity of the logical-discursive level of the religious doctrine’s existence and the yoga practice. The detailed analysis of the semantics of mangala-formula siddham demonstrates the main content of these mangala-practices.

V.M. Rybakov. Mutual Complementarity of the Tang Laws114
The article analyses the inter-complementary character of traditional Chinese laws which functioned during the Tang dynasty (618-907). It is known that four types of laws were in force at that time: the so-called Code (), Statutes (ling), Regulations (ko) and Ordinances (shi). Only texts of criminal laws have survived, while laws of other types were kept mostly in brief quotations in other sources or in scrappy documents which have been discovered by archaeologists. The article describes the hierarchy of the laws, their mutuality and interconnection.

V.P. Zaytsev. A Manuscript Codex Written in the Khitan Large Script from the Collection of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences130
This paper presents the preliminary results of the first published research into a unique manuscript codex that is stored among the Chinese manuscripts of the “Nova Collection” at the Department of Manuscripts and Documents at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, RAS.
The paper not only gives a detailed description of the manuscript, but also suggests an identification of the language and script that it is written in. The manuscript is catalogued as a “Manuscript written in Jurchen” in the inventory (call number Н 176, inventory number 1055), but as it is written using cursive letters that are difficult to read, this identification has never been confirmed. On the basis of detailed analysis of the writing in the manuscript, and comparison with the writing found on Khitan funerary inscriptions, the author of this paper proves that the manuscript is in fact written in the Khitan language using the Khitan large script.
No other printed or manuscript books in either Khitan large script or Khitan small script are known, and this manuscript is thus the first Khitan book to have been discovered.

Victoria Ten. The Notions of Ki 氣 and the Great Void太虛 in the Philosophy of Chinese Scholar Zhang Zai (張載 1020-1077) and Korean Scholar Hwadam Sŏ Kyŏng Tŏk (花潭徐敬德 1489-1546). Explorations in Neo-Confucian Thought 151
This paper is an introduction to Ki-based teaching of Korean Neo-Confucian scholar Hwadam Sŏ Kyŏng Tŏk. Hwadam developed the notion of Ki, the transformative process that constitutes our existence, on the basis of the teaching of the Chinese Neo-Confucian Zhang Zai. Chinese-Korean philosophy, which operates through “pair concepts” (sometimes close in meaning to binary opposition), is a “philosophy of relationship”. Philosophy of relationship means that each concept is understood through its relationship to other concepts, thus forming pair concepts. This article investigates the meaning of Ki notion in the philosophy of Hwadam, by examining the function of Ki in three pair concepts: Ki-Great Void, Ki-Spirit and Ki-Form. In relation to the Great Void, which signifies tranquility, Ki means activity; in relation to Spirit, which signifies the subtle and the imperceptible, Ki means involvement with the matter; in relation to Form, a tangible object, Ki means the absence of form. All these meanings and concepts exemplify the unfolding of the Way of Heaven (Yin and Yang) and the Way of Earth (soft and hard).


A.G. Belova. Lexique de culte en Arabie préislamique dans l’épigraphie et dans la tradition arabe historique (Dieu, divinité, idole) 170
L’analyse du lexique de culte montre que le panthéon de l’Arabie Centrale se forme en résultat des longues contacts des habitants de l’Arabie Centrale avec des civilisations sémitiques anciennes polytheistes du Nord et du Sud. Ce panthéon «se superpose» sur les cultes des pierres et d’autres objets naturels qui étaient plus archaïques et qui reviennent aux croyances locales.

Y.A. Ioannesyan. The Prophetic Mission of the Bab as Presented in the Qayyum al-Asma184
The article based on an analysis of the content, terminology and form of the Qayyum al-Asma, an early Babi writing, proves that the Bab proclaimed his teaching an independent divine revelation, while his Faith right from its inception emerged as an independent religious system with regard to Islam. The author presents multiple arguments from the book (represented in the collection of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts by two manuscripts) to support this thesis.

J.S. Musaelyan. Certain Data on the Characteristic of Mangur and Mamash Kurds (in the Works of Russian and Foreign Scholars of the 19th - First Half of the 20th centuries)214
The article is concerned with the most significant Kurdish tribes in south-eastern Kurdistan - the Mangur and the Mamash related to the federation of Bilbas tribe (Mukri tribal union). The Mamash tribe settled down in Iran in the 16th century during the Safavi rule, while the Mangur tribe emerged in the 18th century during the Karim Khan Zand rule, settling down near the Urumiyyih and Soujboulak provinces. The article considers the following issues: the territory inhabited by these tribes in the 19th - first half of the 20th centuries in Iran and also in Iraq where they had migrated from; numerous subdivisions of the Mangur and the Mamash and their chiefs; their social and economic structure; their clothing, numbers, intertribal relations and relations with the Persian government.

Yu. Mylnikova. Legal Status of Concubines in the Traditional Family Organization of Imperial China according to the Tang’s Code 222
The article contains a review of the legal status of concubines in the traditional family organization of imperial China. The analysis is given from “Tang lü shu yi” (The Tang’s code), the most important and competent source of family and marriage legislation. In the society of imperial China polygamy was forbidden, at the same time concubinage survived successfully until the 20th century. Chinese law made specific regulations on concubines’ status and clarified their position in the family hierarchy.

A.A. Guryeva. Book as a Part of National Culture in Colonial Korea (1910-1945)231
The paper deals with various types of activities concerning old books in colonial Korea which can generally be classified as collecting, studying and publishing. The book related activities are viewed also in the context of such landmarks of the time as Enligtenment movement, formation of the first generation of Korean scholars in the field of philology (in the contemporary sense), etc.

N.V. Tsyrempilov. New Evidence on Soviet-Tibetan Relations in the 20s of the 20th century238
The article deals with the recently discovered material from the archives of M.N. Khangalov History Museum of Buryatia. These are the Tibetan letters which were addressed to the outstanding Buddhist religious figure and diplomat Agvan Dorzhiev (1856-1938). The correspondence dates back to the period of 1921-1925 and is penned by the Thirteenth Dalai Lama Thubten-Gyatso (1873-1933). In the focus of the paper are materials about preparation to the unsuccessful Tibetan expedition of P.K. Kozlov, as well as the early period of Soviet-Tibetan relations and the role of Agvan Dorzhiev.


O.P. Scheglova. Lithographic Publications of Persian Historic Treatises in St. Petersburg Scholarly Libraries (the 19th - First Decade of the 20th century)248
In St. Petersburg scholarly libraries there is a large collection of lithographic works on the history of Iran, India and neighboring countries published in the 19th - first decade of the 20th century. The total number of such works is 83 treatises in 134 editions. The works on Iranian history are of considerable interest. These consist of 37 titles and 63 editions.

T.A. Pang, N.G. Pchelin. Portraits of Meritorious Officers from the Collection of the State Hermitage Museum 262
The first set of portraits of meritorious officers was painted for the Hall of Purple Glaze in the Forbidden City in 1760 by the order of the Qianlong Emperor. After the defeat of the Boxer uprising many of them were taken to Europe as trophies by the soldiers and officers of the European armies. Before World War II a certain number of them was stored in the Berlin Museum of Ethnology and later their traces were lost. It turned out that seven of them were brought to Russia as reparation in 1945-1946 and, to this day, were closed in the depositories of the State Hermitage museum. The publication of the first four portraits before their conservation was allowed by the Ministry of Culture of Russian Federation, while the other three still wait for their turn. The names of the meritorious officers who are depicted on our portraits and who participated in the Qianlong Turkistan campaign in 1759 are Cebdenjab, Bolbunca, Keterkei-baturu Yettun, Habtai-baturu Fusil.

Tokio Takata. Copper-plate Engravings of Qianlong’s Campaign against East Turkestan279
After the victory of the campaign against East Turkestan, in 1764, Emperor Qianlong made an order to prepare copper-plate engravings of the battle scenes using European techniques. Drafts drawn by the four court painters, such as Joseph Castiglione et al., were sent to France and Charles-Nicholas Cochin as the leading master of the time was commissioned to the task. Still the completion of the work was delayed due to technical difficulties and it was only in 1777 that the large order was received finally by the Qing court. The copper-plate engravings are indeed a good sample of the cultural intercourse between East and West in the eighteenth century.
In this essay, the author, after tracing briefly the background history of the Qianlong’s campaign against East Turkestan, examines closely the process of order on the basis of archival materials of the Imperial household department and investigates the actual condition of execution of the copper-plate engravings by the extant copies of the engravings, among others the unfinished edition kept in the Musée du Louvre. Lastly, the possibility of a second printing by Chinese craftsmen themselves using the original copper-plates is discussed.

S.V. Dmitriev. Father Avvakum Chestnoy’s (the Righteous) Materials on Manchu Wedding Rituals 291
The article deals with the materials of Father Avvakum, one of the famous Russian Sinologists, the head of the 11th Russian Ecclesiastic mission in Peking. He had not published much, but he was of great respect as an Orientalist who worked in the field of Russian diplomacy in the 1840-1860s. A number of his translations is stored at the fund of the well-known Russian Orientalist K.A. Skachkov in the Manuscript Department of the Russian State Library in Moscow. Among them is a short translation titled “The Ancient Marriage Ceremonies of the Manchus”, which was written in Chinese in the 1st year of Jiaqing (1796). The Russian translation is published here. The texts were written by a Manchu who lamented that, after the conquest of China, the Manchus had accepted the Chinese rituals and ceremonies, and had forgotten the traditions of their ancestors. His aim was to reintroduce the “ancient Manchu rituals”, like marriage, among the broad masses of the Manchus.


Ye.V. Ivanova, D.A. Samsonov. Kühner Readings 2011303

V.V. Schepkin. The 13th Annual Conference “History and Culture of Japan”305

I.V. Kulganek, T.A. Pang. Travels to the Orient – 2010307

T.V. Yermakova. Discussions on Starting The Buddhist Written Heritage Journal310

Ye.P. Ostrovskaya. The 4th Culturological Readings in Memory of L.I. Mechnikov312

S.A. Frantsuzov. The 23rd Annual Session of Saint Petersburg Arabists314


Vorob’yova-Desyatovskaya M.I. The Great Discoveries by Russian Scholars in Central Asia. Saint Petersburg, 2011, 248 p. (A.Ye. Luk’yanov) — 317

The 4th Orientological Readings in Memory of O.O. Rosenberg. Papers, articles, publication of documents. Compiled by M.I. Vorob’yova-Desyatovskaya, Ye.P. Ostrovskaya. Saint Petersburg, 2011, 319 p. (A.Ye. Luk’yanov) — 318

Kulganek I.V. Mongolian Folk Poetry: Study, Collections, Poetics. Saint Petersburg, 2010, 240 p. (Ye.E. Habunova) — 321

Konchog Jigme Wangbo. The Life story of All-Knowing Jamyang Shepa, a Mighty Savant and Siddhi, called “The Ford Leadirg to Amazingly Good Fortune”. Introduction, translation and comments by Nikolay Tsyrempilov. Ulan-Ude, 2008. (A.V. Zorin) — 324

Garri I.R. Buddhism and Politics in Tibet Region of the PRC (the 2nd half of the 20th c. - early 21st c.). Ulan-Ude, 2009, 320 p. (A.V. Zorin) — 327

Response to the Article “On the Origin of the Enkidu (Gilg. Ep. I ii 35-35а)” by V.V. Yemelianov // Assyriology and Egyptology. St. Petersburg, 2011, p. 86-97. (A.V. Nemirovskaya) — 331

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