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Mongolica. Vol. XXIII, 2020, No. 1 / Ed. by I.V.Kulganek (editor-in-chief), D. A. Nosov (secretary), M. A. Kozintcev (deputy secretary) et al. St Petersburg, 2020. 104 p. ISSN 2311-5939.


HISTORIOGRAPHY, SOURCE STUDIES

G. Bambaragchaa. About one of the traditional games of the Khalkha — 5
One of the types of recreational activities of man is called a ‟game”. This is an important element of livestock society culture. The game is a thread connecting people, it performs the function of a social network, in other words, it is the ‟glue” that holds society together. Playing Shagai is one of the varieties of Mongolian traditional games. It gained the greatest distribution in Central Mongolia, where it is most often played in the summer and autumn.
Key words: game, traditional culture, nomadic cattle breeding, Khalkha-Mongols

D. Heuschert-Laage. The Role of Oaths in Seventeenth-Century Manchu-Mongolian Political Culture — 10
Oaths were an important component of Mongolian political culture and their significance in indicating the binding character of an allegiance is already attested in the Secret History. In the early 17th century, when the Manchus were expanding their power base in Inner Asia, they frequently made use of oaths. Even after the Qing capital was moved to Beijing, oaths were important for binding the Mongolian nobility to the imperial house. For the time before the 17th century, information on performative aspects of oath-taking is scarce. Archival records on Mongolian-Manchu relations in the 17th century, however, contain plenty of information on diplomatic preparations, the specific language of oaths and the staging of oath-taking ceremonies. There is evidence that the fundamental idea of a conditional self-curse, which called punishment on the swearing person if he or she broke a promise, was known to all participants, but details of implementation varied. The paper investigates the Mongolian terminology for oath-taking practices and draws inspiration from recent works on ritual theory. On the basis of 17th century archival material, it draws attention to the dynamic character of oath-taking and argues that it involved both individuals and groups. By exploring narratives which evolved around Manchu-Mongolian oaths as political landmarks, the paper sheds light on oath-taking as a cultural practice.
Key words: Manchus, Mongols, oath, Qing, ritual

K. Kollmar-Paulenz. Imagining a ‟Buddhist Government” (mo. törö šasin) in seventeenth century Mongolia — 18
The early seventeenth century saw the consolidation of Buddhism in the Mongolian regions, instigated some decades earlier by Altan Qa an of the Tümeds and other Mongolian leaders. Mongolian chronicles of the seventeenth century describe the impact the new socio-religious dominance of the Tibetan Buddhist dGe lugs pa school had in the field of Mongolian politics. They also mirror the deep influence the Tibetan concept of chos srid zung `brel, the “conjunction of religion/ religious law and government”, had on Mongolian conceptualizations of secular and religious power. This paper addresses the shifts in political concepts of secular and religious rule by undertaking a close reading of two important historical sources of the time, the Erdeni tunumal neretü sudur (around 1607) and the Erdeni-yin tobči (1662). I argue that the Erdeni tunumal still adheres to a concept of political rule in which the secular ruler has pre-eminence against his religious counterpart. A close reading of the Erdeni-yin tobči reveals that this balance of power shifted in the latter part of the seventeenth century with the establishment of the institution of the Dalai Lamas, which led to an increasing influence of Tibetan politicoreligious thought on the Mongolian configuration of törö šasin.
Key words: Buddhism, Mongolian regions, dGe lugs pa, Dalai Lamas, political concepts

A. V. Popov. Transformations in legal and social status of the North Mongolian nobility (XVIII — first half of XIX century) — 28
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the content and practical application of a number of tax laws introduced by the Qing Imperial authorities in Northern (Khalkha) Mongolia in XVIII — first half of XIX century. These laws limited the amount of fiscal revenues collected from the inhabitants of Mongolian steppes that could be used by native aristocrats as remuneration for the performance of their administrative service duties. As a result, the author found that Mongolian and Chinese sources contain numerous pieces of information about the constant tendency to neglect the norms of Qing tax legislation, which was typical for North Mongolian princes and officials. Reasons for wide spread of such phenomena may be related to the transformation of social and legal system that occurred in Mongolia in XVIII — first half of XIX century due to the influence of the Qing Empire.
Key words: Qing Empire, North (Khalkha) Mongolia, tax laws, North Mongolian aristocracy, violations of fiscal rules, changes in legal status and social role of the Mongolian nobility

T. Yu. Sem. The problem of the ethnogenesis of the Tungus-Manchus. Part 1. (the current state of the issue: from the Neolithic to the turn of eras) — 36
The article is devoted to the modern view on the problems of ethnogenesis of the Tungus-Manchu peoples on the basis of data mainly written sources and Ethnography, with separate excursions to anthropology, language and archeology. It is characterized by the early period of ethnic history of the Tungus-Manchurian peoples — from the Neolithic era to the turn of the era. Synthesis problems in a new branch of knowledge allows to characterize the formation of proto-Tungus with the participation of three groups of confederations of Central and Eastern Asia Dung-I and as well as Dung-Hu and Xunny, and also expresses the idea of relationships Tungus-Manchus with ingorance and Scythians-Pasirynk spiritual culture. Marked Parallels with the culture Dawenkou and Karasuk. The paper proves the correctness of the conclusions of classical Ethnography and Oriental studies about the affiliation of the tribes of the Sushen-Ilou to the ancestors of the Tungus-Manchus, but with clarification about mixing them in China with the Indonesians and the influence of ancient Chinese. Special attention is paid to the Tungus- Manchurian Parallels in ethnonyms and culture (economy, clothing, utensils, religious beliefs and cults) with the tribes of the Sushen, Ilou, Woju, Fuyu Chinese sources.
Key words: ethnogenesis, cultural Genesis, Tungus-Manchuria, Amur region, Primorye, Baikal, Transbaikalia, Upper Amur, Manchuria, written sources, Ethnography

LITERATURE

L. I. Kriakina, A. V. Zorin. Some issues of conservation and textology of two 18th century Kalmyk scrolls in Tibetan preserved in the IOM, RAS — 49
This article presents the main results of conservation treatment and textual analysis of two big scrolls with the Tibetan text of the Vajracchedikā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra, produced around the middle of the 18th century by the Kalmyks on paper made by the manufacture of A. Zatrapeznov in Yaroslavl’. They presumably appeared in St. Petersburg from the Don Voisko Lands in 1797 (i. e. after the migration of the majority of the Kalmyks to Dzungaria in 1771) from the court councilor P. I. Shterich who developed mines in present East Ukraine. The scrolls were taken out from a prayer drum hidden in the ground. The article contains a description of various defects and measures taken to restore the scrolls. Thanks to the conservation treatment, it became possible to unite all parts of the scrolls in the correct order and, moreover, ascertain that they used to compose one scroll that was later cut horizontally into two almost equal parts: the first one (the upper part of the original scroll) has seventeen lines of text, the second one (the lower part) eighteen. Each line contains a complete copy of the Vajracchedikā, thus the complete scroll contained thirty five copies of it. According to our textological analysis, the version of the sūtra presented here is different from the one found in the Tibetan Buddhist canon and corresponds to the same text from the Mdo mang and Gzungs bsdus collections.
Key words: Kalmyk book culture, manuscripts in Tibetan, scrolls from drums, conservation of manuscripts, Tibetan textology, Vajracchedikā

RELATED DISCIPLINES

I. A. Alimov. Notes on Xiaoshuo Prose: “Kuo yi zhi” — 58
The article is part of a large ongoing study under the general title “A Concise History of the 1–13th Century Chinese Xiaoshuo Prose”. It is devoted to xiaoshuo collection named “Kuo yi zhi” (括異志 “Notes covering the strange”) by Zhang Shi-zheng (張師正 1017–?). For the first time in Russian, the article discusses the history of the creation of the text of this collection, analyzes its composition, examines the issue of being, starting with the first editions and ending with modern ones, analyzes the composition and themes of the collection.
Key words: China, chinese literature, chinese xiaosho prose, textology, “Kuo yi zhi”

M. V. Ivanova. Yama and Yami (Rigveda X, 10). Indo-Iranian myth — 65
The article is an amended version of the report of the same name, read on December 11, 2019 at the Annual scientific session of the Institute of Oriental manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences “Written heritage of the East as the basis of classical Oriental studies”. The features of the hymn RV X, 10 in meter, grammar, vocabulary are noted. The speculative nature of the hymn is not confirmed. The hymn resembles a dramatic dialogue with a moral background, where Yama is imposed the role of a moralist and a prophet of the future corruption of the world (and prophecy is a genre alien to the Rigveda). Yama's moral victory in the final is not convincing. The Indo-Iranian myth of Yama and Yami is secondary and is based on a single episode where a brother rejects his sister either out of piety or as a result of his fall. In the Iranian tradition, Yima is a mortal, his sister is not mentioned in the Gāthās and Avesta, the Avestan form of her name is absent. The genealogy of Yama and Yami in the Rigveda exists invariantly and only in the X mandala. In earlier representations, Yama is an androgynous deity who voluntarily sacrificed himself for the sake of gods and people (RV I, 83:5; X, 13: 4). In the earliest representations, the God who sacrifices his own body is Agni, he is the twin of himself: “a twin born, a twin due to be born” (RV I, 66: 8; VI, 11: 2). On the basis of a number of coincidences in the genealogies, the connection between Yama and the Greek hero Iamos is assumed. The folk etymology of “Iamos” from the word “violet” (“ion”) does not stand up to criticism, and the Greek word “twin” (“didymos”) is not associated with Indo-Iranian vocabulary. A poetic translation of the hymn “Yama and Yami” by RV X, 10 and a fragmentary translation of the 6th Olympic ode by Pindar are proposed.
Key words: Yama and Yami, Yima, Yimak, Indo-Iranian myth, twin, androgynous deity, incest, Rigveda, Avesta, Zoroastrianism

Y. A. Ioannesyan. From Islam to the Babi Faith — 79
The article discusses certain issues relating to the emerging of the Babi Faith, considers factors which prepared ground for its inception and analyzes its perception by its first followers. A special place is accorded in the article to the Shaykhi school of Shiah Islam and one of its founders, Sayid Kazim Rashti many of whose disciples formed the majority of the earliest adherents of the new faith. For the exposition of these and some related issues, the author draws upon, along with other sources, a rarely used historical chronicle: a treatise by al-Karbala’i. Appropriate attention is given to Mulla Husayn Bushru’i, who was the first to adopt the Babi Faith.
Key words: the emerging of religions in the new time, post-Islamic religions, the Babi Faith, the Bab, Shaikhism, the Baha’i Faith

REVIEWS

I. Yu. Vanina, Yu. V. Kuzmin. Review on: Shinkovoi A. I. “The Buddhist heritage of Mongolia and the East (XVII–XX centuries). Research and catalog of oriental collections from the funds of the Irkutsk Regional Museum of Local Lore”. Irkutsk; Ulan-Bator, 2018. 464 p. — 89

I. V. Kulganek. Review on: Skorodumova L. G. Mongolian literature of the XIX–XX centuries. Questions of poetics / Proceedings of the Institute of Oriental Culture and Antiquity. Issue LXII. M.: RGGU, 2016. 306 p. — 91

A. A. Turanskaya. Review on: Zorin A. V., Mitruev B. L., Sabrukova S. S., Sizova A. A. The Catalogue of the Works of the Tibetan Buddhist Canon from the Collection of the IOM, RAS. Vol. 2. Indexes / Ed. by A. V. Zorin. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg Centre for Oriental Studies Publishers, 2019. 952 p. ISBN ISBN 978-5-85803-508-4, 978-5-85803-520-6 (in Russian) — 94

CONFERENCE REVIEWS

M. A. Kozintcev. The Fourth International Academic Conference “The Turko-Mongol World: Past and Present” in memoriam of Sergei G. Klyashtorny (1928–2014) (St. Petersburg, February 12–13, 2020) — 96

O. N. Polyanskaya. Research Conference “Ulymzhiev Readings – X. Mongolian Studies in the Modern World: Research Experience, Development Prospects” as a discussion platform on Mongolian studies — 99

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