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Uspensky V. The Status of Tibet In the Seventeenth – Early Eighteenth Centuries: A Mongolian Perspective // Rocznik orientalistyczny. T. LXVII, Z. 1, 2014. S. 230—237.


The conquests of Gushi Khan (1582–1655), who belonged to the Khoshut (Modern Mong. Khoshuud) tribe of the Western Mongols, led to the creation of a new state which included the whole of Tibet and Kuku Nor (Qinghai). His military campaigns brought about the supremacy of the Gelugpa School in Tibet and established, as can be determined from a later perspective, the rule of the Dalai Lamas. This coincided with the creation of the Manchu state whose rulers became emperors of China in 1644. The visit of the Fifth Dalai Lama to Beijing in 1653 and granting of titles by the emperor to the Dalai Lama and Gushi Khan was an act of mutual recognition of the conquests by both sides. The consolidation and expansion of the Qing empire and the lack of unity among the Western Mongols resulted in the end of Khoshut rule in Tibet.

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