Mongolica-XX / Ed. by I.V.Kulganek et al. St Petersburg, 2018. 104 p. ISSN 2311-5939.
The 20th issue of the «Mongolica» magazine is dedicated to the 200th anniversary of the founding of the Asian Museum
(Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences).
Mongolian studies in the Asian Museum / Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences (by I. V. Kulganek) — 6
HISTORIOGRAPHY, SOURCE STUDIES
T. V. Ermakova, E. P. Ostrovskaya. Contribution of Soviet researchers M. I. Tubyansky and A. D. Simukov into the investigation of nomadic cattle breeding among Mongols — 15
The article treats the investigations of the traditions of nomadic cattle breeding among Mongols, that were
made by the orientalist M. I. Tubyansky (1893—1937) and geographer A. D. Simukov (1902—1942) on the base
of the Research Committee of Mongolian People’s Republic. Both researchers interpreted this tradition as a cultural
and historical phenomenon determined by geographical factors. M. I. Tubyansky, relying on his experience
got during the work at the Asiatic Museum of USSR Academy of sciences, combined the observations of living
tradition with the analysis of Mongolian manuscripts concerning nomadic cattle breeding. A. D. Simukov fulfilled
empirical investigations specific for the initial stage of economic anthropology in Mongolian studies. Extracts
from Tubyansky’s notes on nomadic cattle breeding, that are kept in the National Archive of Mongolia, are for the
first time published in the article.
Key words: Mongolia, Mongolian People’s Republic, Soviet researchers’ work at the Research Committee of
Mongolian People’s Republic, nomadic cattle breeding among Mongols, M. I. Tubyansky, A. D. Simukov
R. Yu. Pochekaev. Information of Russian diplomats of the 17th Mongolian law century on the — 21
The article is an analysis of notes of Russian diplomats of the 17th c. who visited different Mongol states. Author
attempts to clarify information on the Mongolian law and legal relations during this period. Such information
is not numerous, but it is of great interest for researchers as reflects real legal relations, implementation of Mongolian
legal codes and even legal rules which were not fixed in these codes. Information of Russian diplomats concern
legal status of Mongol rulers (especially specific features of this status in Eastern Mongolian uluses and
Western Mongolian khanate of Jungharia), status of Mongolian women and clergy, regulation of economic relations,
some aspects in the field of crimes and punishments.
Key words: Mongolia in the 17th c., Junghar Khanate, Qing Empire, Moscow state, customary law, Russian
embassies to Mongolia and China
Tatiana I. Yusupova. International scientific relations of the «new type»: Soviet-Mongolian academic cooperation, 1920s—1930s — 30
The article examines what is behind the definition of Soviet-Mongolian scientific connections that took place
in Soviet historiography as a relationship of a new type. Regarding this objective, the prerequisites and history of
establishment in the mid 1920s of close cooperation between the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the
Committee of Sciences of the Mongolian People's Republic (the first Mongolian scientific institution), its specifics,
the main disciplinary fields, and some quantitative results are discussed. It is noted that almost during all this period the cooperation of the Academy of Sciences with the Committee of Sciences was organizationally separated
from its other contacts and took place in the conditions of limited international communications of the two
countries’ researchers. A certain attention is paid to the reasons for the interest of Soviet scientists in studies of
Mongolia. It is shown that the Academy of Sciences could obtain government support in organizing research activities
in Mongolia in response to the requests of the Committee of Sciences to assist in the study of the country.
The model and structure of scientific relations were built according to external factors (international isolation of
Mongolia until 1946) and internal factors (development of national scientific society and institutions), within the
framework of international treaties, and on the basis of agreements between the Academy of Sciences and the
Committee of Sciences. The author concludes that Soviet-Mongolian academic cooperation today cannot be considered
only within the framework of Soviet expansion into Mongolia. The definition given in the title of the article
reflects the actual aspects of contacts between Soviet and Mongolian researchers that differed from the cooperation
with other international partners. The Committee of Sciences provided the Academy of Sciences with an
opportunity to implement its wide-ranging and decades-long research programs on the territory of Mongolia, and
the Soviet researchers assisted the Committee of Sciences in studying of the country and in the development of
Mongolian scientific institutions.
Key words: Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Committee of Sciences of the MPR, Mongolian Commission,
scientific cooperation, features and specificity of interaction
LITERATURE, LINGUISTICS, CULTURE
K. V. Alekseev. On One Unrecorded Text in the Manuscript Recension of the Mongolian Kanjur — 38
The article is devoted to an analysis of the text of a small dhāraṇī invocation in the manuscript recension of
the Mongolian Kanjur that remained unrecorded in the process of cataloguing of the St. Petersburg copy of the canonical
collection. It presents the transcription of the text and its duplicates included in two recensions of the
Mongolian-language Buddhist Canon as well as the results of textological collation of the dhāraṇī in the extant
copies of the Mongolian Kanjur.
Key words: The Kanjur, Mongolian translated literature, textology, manuscriptology
S. Sh. Аyazbekova. The Turkic-Mongolian musical unity in the context of nomadic and Tengrian civilizations — 42
The article is dedicated to exploration of musical commonalities between the Turkic and Mongolian nations.
According to the author, the genesis of Turkic-Mongolian Musical-Cultural Commonalities (TMMCC) is located
in 2 civilisations — the world nomadic and the local Tengrian civilisations that emerged in the epoch of the Mesolithic.
The world nomadic civilisation has formed such defining characteristics of TMMCC as the verbal type of culture,
the solo genres, the types and methods of creation and functioning of the musical instruments, the 'steppe'
images of the nature and imitation of its sounds. The cosmocentric type of the world perspective peculiar to the
world nomadic civilisation is examined in the capacity of precondition of the Tengrian civilisation formation.
The Tengrian local civilisation has defined a number of distinctive features of TMMCC such as preconception
of the music as the Music-Universe, Music-Soul and Music-Art. The author examines the semantics of the musical
instrimentarium in the context of Tengrism.
In conclusion, the author considers the process of consolidation and steady formation of the cultural identity of
the Turkic and Mongolian worlds, as well as formation of the 'filial' Turkic and Mongolian civilisations out of the
Key words: Turkic-Mongolian Musical-Cultural Commonalities, Nomadic world civilisation, settled world
civilisation, Tengrian civilisation, Turkic civilisation, Mongolian civilisation, Musical Instruments, Music-
Universe, Music-Soul, Music-Art
V. N. Mazurina. St. Petersburg and Leningrad in the fate of Osor Budaev — 53
The article focuses on Buddhist monk and artist Osor Budaev. In 1912—1914 Osor Budaev participated in the
work of the decoration of Buddhist temple in St. Petersburg. A skilled carver and talented artist, he performed
very different pieces. From autumn 1932 to May 1936 he worked at the Museum of the History of Religion in
Leningrad. He played an active role in the formation of the Buddhist collection, travelled with collectionexpeditions,
prepared items to be exhibited and designed the exhibition. After the defeat of the hostel at a Buddhist
temple in February 1937 he was arrested and executed. The collection of the Museum of the History of Religion
kept both original works and custom-made for museum exposition. All of them were exhibited at an exhibition
dedicated to the memory of Osor Budaev, that was organized by the Museum.
Key words: Budaev, St. Petersburg, a Buddhist temple, Leningrad, The State Museum of the History of Religion
O. Chinbayar. Russian literature of the twentieth century in Mongolian. From the experience of an interpreter — 57
This article pertains to the problems faced when translating the works of XX century Russian writers into
Mongolian and also the segments of Mongolian translation books at the Mongolian publishing houses.
Key words: literature, features of translation, translation into Mongolian, Russian writers, translated literature
THE ARCHIVES OF ORIENTALISTS
Scientific works of T. A. Burdukova (1912—1987) (From the archives of Orientalists in the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts
of the Russian Academy of Science) by S. S. Sabrukova — 62
The article is dedicated to the scientific works of T. A. Burdukova who worked in the Institute of Oriental Studies
of the Academy of Science of the USSR for 14 years (1934—1948). Based on the archive documents from
collection No. 152 (administrative papers) it lists the main areas of the researcher’s scientific interests, the ways
her ideas were realised and the reputation established as an expert in the Mongol studies.
Key words: T. A. Burdukova, the Mongol Room, report, Mongol language, Oirat language
S. G. Batyreva. Rev. on: Chetyrova L. B. Russian Kalmyks: essays on history, culture, Buddhism and language:
monograph. Samara: publishing house «Samara University», 2016. 188 p. (in Russian) — 67
A. V. Zorin. Rev. on: Borodaev V. B., Kontev A. V. Formation of the Russian border in the Irtysh-Yenisei interfluve in
1620—1720: documentary monograph. Barnaul 2015 (in Russian) — 68
L. G. Skorodumova. Rev. on: Andrey Platonov. Chevengur. Translated from Russian by O. Chinbayar. Ulaanbaatar,
2017 (in Mongolian) — 69
Dordzhieva G. The Oirat and Kalmyk in Mongolia, Russia, Kyrgyzstan and China — Looking for an Oirat identity in the
20th and 21st century. International Conference, Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany. February 20—23,
2018. Organized by Dr. Johannes Reckel — 71
D. A. Nosov. New publications on Mongolian Studies — 75
V. Inzhinash. Red Chamber of Tears. The Novel. Chapters six, seven and eight (translated from Classical Mongolian by
L. G. Skorodumova) — 81
Mongolian Fairy Tales (translated by D. A. Nosov) — 91
Information about the authors — 103
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Random news: Announcements
On December 10, 2018, the conference History and Culture of the Ancient East dedicated to the 90th Birth Anniversary of M.A. Dandamaev (1928-2017) will be held at the IOM RAS.