Z.K. Kasyanenko – Teacher and Mongolist. Proceedings of the International Conference
devoted to 90th birthday of Russian Mongolist Z.K.Kasyanenko. September 30 – October 1, 2015. Saint Petersburg. Russia. Ed. by L.Bold (editor-in-chief), I.V.Kulganek, B.Tuvshintugs, N.S.Yakhontova (executive editor). St. Petersburg – Ulaanbaatar. 2016. 218 р.
The present volume introduces the proceedings of the conference Z. K. Kasyanenko –
Teacher and Mongolist (devoted to her 90th birthday) which was held on
September 30 – October 1, 2015 in the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts Russian
Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg, Russia)
Z. K. Kasyanenko taught in the Department of Mongolian and Tibetan Studies of
St. Petersburg State University’s Oriental Faculty for over fi ft y years. Z. K. Kasyanenko
made an invaluable contribution to the teaching of different courses in the field of
Mongolian studies. She introduced new training methods, due to which students
gained profound and methodically perfect knowledge of the culture and language
of the Mongols. Her textbook on the Modern Mongolian language and her studies
in Mongolian Ganjur textology have become fundamental works in those fields.
Her former students work as researchers at academic centers in Russia, Mongolia
and many other countries. She is a recipient of Mongolia's highest state honour, the
Order of the Polar Star. The volume includes the works of her former students and
colleagues, researches working in the fi elds of Mongolian language, literature, history
and textology – all spheres lying within Z. K. Kasyanenko scientific interests. It will be
of interest for specialists in Mongolian studies, historians, culturologists and anyone
interested in the language, literature, culture, history of the Mongolian people, and
peoples in Central Asia.
Introduction (I. V. Kulganek) — 12
Bibliography of the works of Z. K. Kasyanenko (compiled by K. V. Alekseev) — 20
I. F. Popova (Russia. St. Petersburg) — 24
B. Tuvshintugs (Mongolia) — 25
B. V. Bazarov (Russia. Buryatia) — 27
G. V. Denisov, Yu. N. Kruchkin (Mongolia) — 30
V. L Uspensky (Russia. St. Petersburg) — 31
L. Haloupkova (Czech Republic) — 32
N. O. Kokshaeva (Russia. Kalmykia) — 33
Greetings from Buryatia — 34
Greetings from the web portal “Mongolia Today” — 34
K. V. Alekseev. Mongolian Studies in the Works of Zoya Kononovna Kasyanenko — 36
The article reviews the works of the eminent scholar of Mongolian
language and literature Zoya Kononovna Kasyanenko.
Keywords: Kasyanenko Z. K., linguistics, a textbook of the Mongolian language,
A. A. Burykin. Morphology of the Mongolian Languages in a Context of Altaistics: Some New Approaches — 44
The article represents the review of problems of comparative-historical
morphology of the Altaic languages in context of the theory of genetic affinity of
the Altaic languages which is considered nowadays proved and having no any
alternatives. New works on comparative morphology of Turkic and Mongolian
languages, according to the author, continue V. Kotvich’s researches, but in respect of
actually morphology are purely confrontational, by their results they do not influence
the ideas of the Altaic theory and testify that the volume of communications of Turkic
and Mongolian languages at morphology level was insignificant. The author shows
the historical identifications of some word-formation and grammatical suffixes
and grammatical elements in the Altaic languages and offers new approaches to
the identification of the historically general morphemes in the Altaic languages.
Keywords: The Altaic languages, comparative-historical linguistics, confrontative
linguistics, phonetic correspondences, suffixes, word-formation, grammar
Yu. I. Elikhina. Mongolian Buddhist Sculptures and Paintings in the Collection
of the State Hermitage Museum — 54
The author shortly describes the most interesting objects of Mongolian
Buddhist art in the collection of the State Hermitage Museum. At first there are the
bronze objects, which were cost by the eminent Mongolian master and the head
of Buddhist church G. Zanabadzar (1635–1723), and also the sculpture of his
disciples. More over in the collection there are the Buddhist objects from Dolonnor
in hammering technique, painting scrolls and wood carvings. In a whole the objects
are the wonderful examples of the Mongolian Buddhist art of the end of the 17th –
beginning 20th centuries.
Keywords: Mongolian Buddhist art, sculpture, paintings, wood carvings
E. A. Kantor. Excerpt from “Mani-kabum” in the Collected Volume “Book of Selected
Passages for Personal Development” — 66
This article investigates questions connected with assimilation of Tibetan
literary monument “Mani-kabum” in Mongolia. There exist three different
translations of this work into the Mongolian language made in late 16th – middle of
the 17th century. Also separate excerpts from “Mani-kabum” were in circulation.
There are more than ten volumes containing such excerpts in the collection of Institute
of Oriental Manuscripts (St. Petersburg). One of them is the collected volume “Book
of selected passages for personal development” (mong. Abiyas kičiyeku teguberi-yin
debter) description of which is given herein after.
Keywords: Buddhist literature, Mongolia, Mongolian literature, Tibetan literature,
N. O. Kokshayeva. On the Problem of Philological Description of the Archive Documents in “Clear Script” 18–20th Centuries — 85
Archive documents in “clear script” (18–20th centuries) are the written
heritage of the Kalmyks as well. Their study is essential for understanding of routine
labour and life, inner life of nomads, passions and moods, characters and social
conflicts. They present the development of a All-Mongol and Slavic written traditions.
Keywords: archive Kalmyk bilingual documents (18–20th centuries), classification,
Tibetan-Kalmyk document andaγāriyin bičiq ‘vow, oath’, functional document
D. N. Muzraeva. Problems and Tasks of Field Researches of Ethnoterritorial Groups of Mongol Speaking Peoples (on Materials of Field Researches in Western Mongolia in 2015) — 85
In this article the author considers the problems of the description of
the Mongolian languages and ethnography of Mongol speaking peoples, and also
questions of studying traditional book culture in its current state which are based
on materials of expedition in Ubsunursky aimak of Mongolia in the summer, 2015.
Keywords: Mongolian languages, Mongol speaking peoples, field researches,
ethnography, book culture
M. Otgonbayar. Modal Meaning Expressed by Auxiliary Particle -daa4 withimperative Verbal Forms — 92
This article is an attempt to reveal the meaning of particles (-daa4) in
the Mongolian language in six positions with the imperative form of the verb. The
meaning conveyed is: suggestions, advice, requests, confirmations, requirements
Keywords: finite particle -daa4, auxiliary words, imperative, modal meaning
V. V. Ponaryadov. Case Markers in the Old Siberian Oirat Dialect — 98
The article analyzes the morphology of case marking in the 18th century
Old Siberian Oirat dialect. The allomorphic variation of case suffixes is determined.
The place of the Old Siberian Oirat case system among the systems of other North
Mongolian languages is established.
Keywords: early Mongolian transcriptional texts, Old Siberian Oirat dialect,
A. V. Popov. Two Mongolian Official Letters Dated to the 19th Century — 103
The article presents a transliteration and commented translation of
two official letters written by Mongolian administrative functionaries in the first
third of the 19th century. Both were brought from Mongolia by A. M. Pozdneev.
Their handwritten copies in 1898 was published by G. Dz. Tsibikov in the collection
of materials, intended as a training manual for the practical course in Mongolian
language. The above mentioned letters still have not been subjected to any kind
of analysis. However, these documents represent a typical examples of Mongolian
official correspondence dated to the 19th century. Moreover they are abandoned
of little-known facts about the relationship between the authorities of the North
Mongolian banners and administrative structures, constituted the personal subjects
assigned to the Treasury of Jibzundamba Khutugtu (the Shabi).
Keywords: official documents, Mongolian administration in the Qing period,
A. M. Pozdneev, G. Dz. Tsibikov, the North Mongolian banners, the Shabi of Jibzundamba
V. I. Rassadin. On the Role of Imitative Words in the Khalkha Mongolian Verb Derivation —120
This article is about an important role of imitative words in the history
of the verbal system development in the Mongolian languages. A special system to
transmit images of sounds and human perception of the surrounding reality, as well
as images of the results of some human actions originated in the Proto-Mongolian
language. This system is characteristic to the Mongolian languages and Khalkha
Mongolian in particular.
Keywords: Mongolian languages, imitative words, onomatopoetic words, analytic
forms of the verbs, verb kiku, verb geku, aspect forms of imitative verbs, affix -la,
affix -ra, All-Mongolian character of imitatives
S. S. Sabrukova. Summer Trips to Kalmyk Steppe of Students of St. Petersburg Imperial University under the Supervision of V.L.Kotvich (Based on Documents Kept at the Archives of Orientalists of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences) — 127
The article studies two student’s reports of their trips to the Kalmyk
steppe. These documents are of interest both as field ethnographic papers and as a
study of the Kalmyk language; they could be regarded as student’s annual term or
qualification papers. They allow researchers to study the oral Kalmyk language of
the early 20th century which had certain differences compared to the written Oirat
Keywords: report, archives, steppe, Kalmyk language, khurul
D. D. Selyunina. Meaning of the Term Eǰen in the “Shar Tuuj” Chronical — 137
This article focuses on analysis of one of the most frequent appellation
of Mongolian rulers – eǰen. Determinig of contexts of this term allows to expand
knowledge of a sovereign’s status in Mongolian political culture and worldview
in XVIIcentury. Studying the term also reveals a correlation between sacred and
profane functions of eǰen depending on what Mongolian ruler was defined by this
Keywords: power, political culture, sacralization, legitimation of power, Genghis
L. G. Skorodumova. On the Question of Psychologism in the Mongolian Prose — 150
The article is devoted to the characteristic of modern Mongolian
writer T. Yumsuren (on the example of the collection of short stories “Irbis”) and
also of some young prosaists of 21st century who are working in the genre of story.
Particularly, the analysis of T.Bum-Erdene’s stories. The writers follow the main
theme - morality and psychology of people’s relationships keeping adherence to
the realistic manner of writing.
Keywords: Irbis, modern prose, psychology, allegory
T. D. Skrynnikova. Noyons in Khalh of the 17th Century — 160
The article is devoted to a problem of interpretation of the status of
the persons designated in the Mongolian written monuments by a title noyon. The
analysis of original Mongolian texts showed that first of all the title нойон marked
the representatives of the Gold sort Chingis-hana who were carrying out imperious
functions. The title noyon was used in a titulatura of the aristocracy of Khalkh for
designation of the special status along with titles of a tayjiand a khuntayji.
Keywords: title noyon, Khalkh, ruling elite, socio-political structure
Urtnasan Davaajav. Determining the Mongolian Reduced Vowels — 169
Do reduced vowels in all vowels of Mongolian produce the same vowel
quality? Or do they produce different vowel qualities depending on the preceding
vowels? If the latter is true, what difference is there between reduced vowels and
non-reduced vowels in terms of vowel quality?
To find out answers to those questions, this paper analyzed the vowel quality of
the vowels in Mongolian under diverse environments from the perspective of acoustic
phonetics and examined how vowel reduction is going actually.
The experiment aimed to figure out the vowel quality of the reduced vowel when
monophthong is weakened at the unstressed syllable.
This article examined how reduces vowel influencing nasal consonant in
Mongolian language. Tongue position of reduced vowels of Mongolian language /
except labial vowels/ move over /indication of F2 decreases/. In other words, it is
pronounced by back of tongue.
Keywords: vowel reduction, reduced vowel, vowel quality, formant value, plosive
consonant, nasal consonant
V. L. Uspensky. The Policy of the Manchus towards the Mongols: from the Promulgation of the Qing Dynasty (1636) to the Collapse of the Ming Dynasty (1643) — 184
The Manchu Qing Dynasty promulgated in 1636 claimed its power
over the whole of China and surrounding world. However, in reality it maintained
control only of a relatively small territory north to the Great Wall. At that time,
nobody could predict an early collapse of the Ming Dynasty in 1643. For a successful
pursuing of their expansionist policy, the Manchus had to cut all possible contacts
with China by the Mongols and the Oirats. To that end were used demands, threats
and military alliances. Translation is made of the imperial decree dated 1641 urging
the Mongols who stayed in China to submit to the Qing Dynasty.
Keywords: Mongols, Manchus, Qing dynasty, Ming dynasty, China, Oirats
R. Otgonbaatar A. D. Tsendina. Two Variants of “Maaniin Magtaal” — 189
The article refers to two variants of the Mongol manuscript, which
includes “Mani”, a prayer formula to the Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, and is an
example of the text used in the ritual of “Ascension of Mani”.
Keywords: Mongolian written tradition, the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, the
ritual of “Ascension of Mani”
T. I. Yusupova. Why the Textbook “History of Mongols” by G.E. Grumm-Grzhimailo was not Published — 198
In 1927 the Ministry of Education and the Scientific Committee of
the Mongolian Peoples’ Republic suggested that the prominent Russian explorer of
Central Asia G.E. Grumm-Grzhimailo should write a textbook on the history of the
Mongols. The concept of this work and its structure was discussed by the Russian
researcher with the academic secretary of the Scientific Committee Ts. Zhamtsarano
in their correspondence. At first planned as the secondary school textbook this project
was expanded by Grumm-Grzhimailo into a full scale university course. The article
deals with the history of this text preparation and the reasons why “The History”
was not published either in Mongolia or in the USSR.
Keywords: history of the Mongols, unrealized project, G. E. Grumm-Grzhimaylo,
Ts. Zhamtsarano, the Mongolian Scientific Committee
N. S. Yakhontova. The Tibetan “ka ‘phreng” Tradition in the “LishiGurkhan” Dictionary — 208
In the collection of IOM there are kept three manuscripts of the famous
Tibetan-Mongolian dictionary “LishiGurkhan”, which diff er from the famous
xylograph. The diff erence lies in the alphabetical words arrangement. Besides, a list
of words for each letter ends with a phrase with blessings which includes some words
with one and the same grapheme. Such tradition is known as ka ‘phreng and it is
helpful for memorizing the Tibetan alphabet. Transliterations and translation of these
phrases are presented and accompanied by comparison with the same phenomenon
in the “Ocean of Names” dictionary.
Keywords: tradition ka ‘phreng, Tibetan-Mongolian dictionaries, dictionary
“Lishi-Gurkhan”, Buddhist blessings
The list of authors — 216
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Random news: Announcements
On April 12, 2016, at the Seminar Knowledge about the Kunstkamera [Наука о Кунсткамере] held by the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera), RAS, Alexander V.Zorin, a senior researcher at the IOM RAS, will submit her presentation About Tibetan and Mongolian Texts Transmitted in 1818 to Asiatic Museum from the Library of the Imperial Academy of Sciences [О тибетских и монгольских текстах, переданных в 1818 г. в Азиатский музей из Библиотеки Императорской Академии наук].