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Suleymanova S. Trade Colonies on Caspia Via between Central Asia and Caucasus // Bulletin of IICAS, Volume 8, 2009. P. 40-57.


From time immemorial the Caucasus was at the crossroads of the great migrations and trade routes between North and South. Recent archaeological studies on the territory of Azerbaijan, North Caucasus, Syria and Turkmenistan found migrations of ancient cultures of Front Asia (Ubeyd, Uruk) to South and North Caucasus, which influenced Anatolia and further eastwards to South Turkmen (later V-IV Millenniums B.C.). Tribes of Ubaid culture migrated to Central Asia and Caucasus in the courses of centuries. Their material culture underwent changes of the different natural-geographical places they went through. But ideologies, traditions connected with spiritual life were kept for thousands of years in the memory of these tribes. They found there reflections in South Cauc?sus and South Turkmer. Trie migrations from South. Caucasus (Leylatepe kulture) to North Caucasus, ргоЬлніу, passed through Daryal Pass. Each migration process accuunts for reverse motie i.e. communication ties with their ethno-cultural basis and traditions. Excavations at Boyuk Kesik and like sites in the territory of Azerbaijan, Iran, Dagestan, Georgia has shown that this culture has played important role м the development of posterior cultures of the Early Bronze Age - Maykop and Kur-Arax in the South and North Caucasus. Migrations result in cultural integration, development of trade relations and thus pave the ideological and material way for subsequent migrations.' The settlements of the Central Asian tribes attributed to III-II millennium B.C. also have connections with cultures of Mesopotamia, Elam. In the III-I millennium B.C. Hurntes, Kutiis, Caspians, Hittites, “people of sea”, Cimmerian, Scythians rushed to Front Asia via Caucasian and Asia Minor Taurus. Illustrative of ancient communication routes are road signs in Assyrian cuneiform which indicate distances between populated areas, just as Arabs did in the 9-10 centuries...

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Keywords


Caspia Via
Caucasus
Strabo
trade colonies

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