In July 10 – 14, 2006 the 13th World Sanskrit Conference was held at the University of Edinburgh . It was organized by IASS (International Association of Sanskrit Studies) & Asian Studies (LLC), The University of Edinburgh.
Organising Committee: John Brockington (Chair), Paul Dundas (Secretary), Janet Pearse (Secretary to the organising committee).
Participant from the Institute - Dr Safarali Kh. Shomakhmadov. Vasubandhu’s “Encyclopedia of Abhidharma” and Buddhist Concept of Royal Power (On a material of some Buddhist Sanskrit and Pàli texts). The report was given at the Section 9 - Buddhist Studies.
The program of the Conference is as follows.
13th WORLD SANSKRIT CONFERENCE
Section 1 - Veda
Taraknath Adhikari. Some irregular features in the Sayanabhasya of the Atharvaveda
Nabanarayan Bandyopadhyay. Evaluation of Daksina items with reference to Mulyadhyaya
Soma Basu. Offensive and Defensive Weapons - Military Science in the Vedic Period
Didhiti Biswas. The Significance of Horse in the Vedic Religion and Culture Brian Black The Dialogical Self in the Early Upanisads
Joel Brereton. The Early Evolution of the Purohita Kana Chattopadhyay A Liturgic and Symbolic Study of Cayana
Shrimanta Chattopadhyay. Classification of Rgvedic Female Deities
Nilanjana Sikdar Datta. An Analytical Study of an Oral Text - The Rgveda Madhav Deshpande Predicament of the Maitrayani community in Maharashtra:Migration, Acculturation and Identity Crises
Silvia D'Intino. The Skandasvamibhasya on the Rgveda: Observations on the introductory portion of the commentary
Tamara Ditrich. Stylistic and Typological Analysis of Coordinative Nominal Constructions in the Rgveda
S. Einoo Laszlo Forizs. Dirghatamas II: Analysis of the Dirghatamas cycle (RV 1.140-164) and of 1.164.46
Masato Fujii. The Purohita and the Brahman Priest
Cezary Galewicz. On ritualized patterns of collective recitation among Nambudiri Rgvedins: the case of Trisandha
Arlo Griffiths. 'To fart' in Vedic: the roots kard and sardh
Stephanie Jamison. Sacrificer's Wife in the Rig Veda: Ritual Innovation?
M. Jezic. Kausitaki-Upanisad: its teachings and its text history
Joanna Jurewicz. The "small scale" transmigration in the Rgveda?
Mieko Kajihara. The Godana Ritual and the Vedavratas
W. Knobl. On the Concessive Meaning of Sánt- in Vedic Frank Köhler Mapping the poet in the Rgveda
Murlimanohar Pathak. Elements of creation in the minor cosmogonic hymns of the Rgveda
Theodore Proferes. Fire in the Waters and the Alchemical King
Ferenc Ruzsa. Is the Cosmic Giant an Indo-European Myth?
Adela Sandness. To open the double doors of rta: a study of dvarav rtasya in Rgveda 7.95 to Sarasvati
Umesh Chandra Sharma. The Legend of Dirghatamas
Frits Staal. Cardinal Numbers in the Veda
Jarrod L. Whitaker. Masculinity and Violence in the Rgveda: Reconsidering the roles of nar, vira, and sura
Section 2 - Epics
Vidyut Aklujkar. The Locus of the Ananda-Ramayana
Nicholas Allen. Bharata genealogy: the core parent-generation males
Supriya Banik Pal. Women in the field of education as projected in the Mahabharata: a re-interpretation
Horst Brinkhaus. The 16,108 Wives of Krsna in the Harivamsa
John Brockington. "Then in his warlike wrath Rama bent his bow": weaponry of the early Ramayana
Mary Brockington. "Surprise, Surprise!" Authors' stratagems and audiences' expectations in the Ramayana
Simon Brodbeck. Strange brides and hunting incidents in the Bharata patriline
Vita Antonella Cosi. Upamas occurring in speeches: "abusive" similes in the Sabhaparvan and Karnaparvan
Gopal Krishna Dash. Role of Krsna in the Mahabharata
Danielle Feller. Bhima's quest for the golden lotuses (Mbh.3.146-153)
James L. Fitzgerald. The Manifesto of "Samkhya-Yoga" at MBh 12.289-90
Robert P. Goldman. Rules of Engagement: War Crimes, Raksasa rights and the Political and Military strategies of the Great Sanskrit Epics
Sally Sutherland Goldman. Nikumbhila's Grove: Raksasa Rites in Valmiki's Ramayana
James Hegarty. What need has he of the waters of Puskara? Tirtha and the Narrative Construction of Significant place in the Mahabharata
Alf Hiltebeitel. Mapping Bhakti through Friendship in the Sanskrit Epics
Paolo Magnone. Uttanka's quest Angelika Malinar Duryodhana's praise
Laurie L. Patton. "How do you conduct yourself": dialogical gender in the Mahabharata
Wendy Phillips-Rodriguez. Unrooted trees: a way around the dilemma of recension
San Sarin. Question of dharmayuddha in the Mahabharata
Adheesh Sathaye. Textual Performance: The embedding of Visvamitra legends in the Sanskrit Epics
Sven Sellmer. The heart in the Mahabharata
Urmi Shah. A Comparative Study of Polity in the Nitiprakasika and the Ramayana
J. S. Sheldon. Homeric resonances in Sanskrit epic: a review of the evidence and its implications
John Smith. Consistency and character in the Mahabharata
Przemyslaw Szczurek. Juggling with atman: a few remarks on Bhagavadgita 6.5-6
Lynn Thomas. From the ocean bed to the rule of heaven: a comparison of the two main epic accounts of the vrtrahatya
Yaroslav Vassilkov. The boar shakes the mud off: a specific motif in the varaha-katha of the Great Epic and Puranas
Section 3 - Puranas
Greg Bailey. Misogynistic texts in Jataka S36 and Mbh.13, 38040: A Comparative Study
Alka Bakre. A glimpse into Gender inequality as reflected in the main Puranas
Peter Bisschop. Two parallel passages in the Vayupurana and the Skandapurana
David Buchta. Novelty in Bhagavata Exegesis
Shrutidhara Chakravarty. Searching the real identity of Gopis in the light of the Bhagavatapurana
Mimma Congedo. The varaha-katha of the Great Epic and Puranas
André Couture. The Emergence of a Group of Four Characters
Nicolas Dejenne. Master or Disciple? The Perpetual Oscillation of ciranjivin Parasurama between Guide and Disciple
Anita Ray. Savitri and narrative representations of the feminine
Elizabeth Mary Rohlman. Narrative Variants and Regional Identity in the Sarasvati Purana
Stella Sandahl. The Seven Oceans in the Puranas and elsewhere
Sandra Smets. When a pauranika is influenced by a bhasyakara:...
Renate Söhnen-Thieme. Ramayana stories in the Brahmapurana and other puranic sources
Lakshmi Swaminathan. Narayaniyam: The Essence of Bhagavatam
Kenneth Valpey. Bodies Monstrous, Bodies Divine: Corporal Transformations and Humor in the Bhagavata Purana
Christophe Vielle. The editio princeps of the Jaiminiyasamhita of the Brahmandapurana, Madhyamabhaga
Yuko Yokochi. From the Skandapurana to the Devimahatmya
Section 4 - Agamas and Tantras
Andrea Acri. New Data on the Vaimala Sect of the Pasupatas from Old Javanese sources
Marie-Luce Barazer-Billoret. Diptagama and installation ceremonies
Christelle Barois. Some notes on the vidyapithapratistha and the vidyadana in the Saiva tradition
Gudrun Bühnemann. Linga and Caityas in Cremation Ground Representations
Marzenna Czerniak-Drozdzowicz. Visnusamhita's classification of the devotees and explanation of the name Pancaratra
Ronald Davidson. Observations on the problem of secret signs in the Tantras: an essay in criticism
Thiagarajan Ganesan. Pauskaragama: Its importance for systematisation of early medieval Saivasiddhanta
Eva Glasbrenner. Cakra system and tantric ritual in Virasaivism
Advaitavadini Kaul. Esoteric significance of saradi
Kameshwar Nath Mishra. Vimalaprabha and the Language of Buddhist Texts
Lubomir Ondracka. The Concept of Body in Natha-Siddha Tradition
Henri Schildt. The application of the ayadi formulae in the Kerala Taccusastram
Silvia Schwarz Linder. The relevance of rupa and murti for the doctrine of God of the Padmasamhita
Vijay Rajopadhyay. A Rare Manuscript on Dasamahavidya
Section 5 - Vyakarana
Ashok Aklujkar. Patañjali's yathalaksanam aprayukte
Emilie Aussant. Proper name analysis. The points of view of paninian grammarians
Sharon Ben-Dor. The Parabhasa
Sudeshna Bhattacharjya. A Relative Study on the concept of Samjna and Paribhasa in the light of Siddhantakaumudi
Maria Piera Candotti. Les laisons dangereuses: naming-prodecure and substitution in early Sanskrit grammarians
Chaitali Dangarikar. Helaraja on Eight Padarthas
Radhamadhab Dash. A concordance among Paninian, Candra and Bhoja-vyakarana: some observations
M.G. Dhadphale. On the name Vakyapadiya
Shankarji Jha. Variety of implications of Sanskrit case endings
Malhar Kulkarni. Malayalam manuscripts of the Kasikavrtti : A study
K. Maheswaran Nair. Efficacy of Saravasvata in lieu of Paniniya as Sanskrit Grammar
Rebecca Manring. Jiva Gosvamin's Hari-namamrta-vyakarana
Shinobu Mase. Nagesa on the paribhasa asiddham bahirangam antarange
H. R. Mishra. Attempts in Grammar by the Sanskrit Dramaturgists and Poeticians
Sharda Narayanan. Vak in Bhartrhari: Threefold or Fourfold?
Hideyo Ogawa. Bhartrhari of incommunicable things
Bhagyalata Pataskar. Yaska's Reflections on the 'meaning of a word'
Tiziana Pontillo. Once again on 'vyakti-vacane' in Astadhyayi 1.2.51
Vanitha Ramaswamy. Syntax as the basis for morphology in the Paninian system
Peter M. Scharf. Paninian accounts of the class eight presents
Harmut Scharfe. Panini's grammar as icon
Ram Karan Sharma. The Invisible in Panini
M. Wielinska-Soltwedel. The Bengali Tradition of Panini's Grammar
Section 6 - Linguistics
Hassan Rezai. Baghbidi Linguistic Peculiarities of the Sanskrit Translation of the 13th Chapter of the Skend Gumanig Wizar
Vit Bubenik. On the Rise and Remaking of the Middle Voice in Anatolian and Indo-Iranian
Eystein Dahl. The relationship between lexical aspect and grammatical tense in the Vedic verbal system
Marcis Gasüns. Approaches to the Sanskrit Root
Toshifumi Gotõ. salam as 'to live in the hut' in the Satapathabrahmana
Mark R. Hale
Heinrich Hettrich. Some remarks on the adverbal genitive in Rgvedic Sanskrit
Hans Hock. Vedic Verb Accent Revisited
Jared Klein. Sequential Negation in the Rgveda
Martin Kümmel. Laryngeal traces without laryngeals in Vedic metre?
Boris Oguibenine. Spoken Sanskrit and Buddhist Sanskrit
Georges-Jean Pinault. About the 'double possessive' compounds in the Vedic language
José Luis García Ramón. Polymorphic Presents in the Rg- and Atharvaveda
Elizabeth Tucker. The 'competition' in the RV and AV between stems in -in and stems in -vant derived from thematic nouns
Calvert Watkins. Two tokens of Indo-Iranian Hieratic Language
Sabine Ziegler. The nomina converbalia in the Rgveda: Towards a functional and syntactical hierarchy of participles, gerunds, infinitives and agent nouns
Section 7 - Poetry, Drama and Aesthetics (including panels on poetics, on the theory and practice of dance and drama and on continuity and novelty)
Pratap Bandyopadhyay. Grammatical Speculations in Sanskrit Literary Criticism
Hari Narayana Bhat. The Balaramayana of Rajasekhara and later Indian literary critics
Giuliano Boccali. Ocean in kavya
Anna Bonsoli Alquati. The Structure of Kalidasa's Raghuvamsa
Mandakranta Bose. The authorship of Sangitanarayana
Mans Broo. Drama in the Service of Krsna: A Comparative Study of Rupa Gosvamin's Natakacandrika
Satyanarayan Chakraborty. Study of Sanskrit Poetics in Bengal - Ancient to Modern
Laksahira Gugoi Chutia. Vatsalyarasa in the works of Kalidasa
David Gitomer. Ethics and Aesthetics in Sanskrit Dramatic Criticism: an overview
François Grimal. Rajacudamani Diksita's Kavyadarpana
M.A. Jayashree. Gamaka as expressed in Manasollasa with an attempt to compare it with western classical music
Klaus Karttunen. Bees in Classical India
Mohendra N. Kundu. Dhvani and Tatparya
Rani Majumdar. 'Staging the Ratnavali in 9th Century Varanasi: Damodaragupta's Description in the Kuttanimatam'
David Mellins. Unraveling the Kavyaprakasa: Jayadeva Piyusavarsa's idiosyncratic sequencing of topics in the Candraloka
Klara Gönc Moacanin. Natyasastra's Purvaranga - ritual or a part of natya's performance?
Marina V. Orelskaya. Sanskrit to English Dictionary of Dance Terminology
Deven Patel. Sabhaparvan and Karnaparvan
Shubha Pathak. The Divine Character of Poetic Creativity in Rajasekhara's Kavyamimamsa
Heidi Pauwels. Metre and oral formulae in selected songs of Gitagovinda and Bhagavata Purana
Cinzia Pieruccini. Landscapes of Feelings: The Forest of the Ramayana
Mariola Pigoniowa. Some lamentation passages in Sanskrit Kavya
Chittur Seshadri Radhakrishnan. The Language of Eyes in Literature
Chettiarthodi Rajendran. Is Rasa an Illusion? A Study in Mahimabhatta's Aesthetics
Daniela Rosella. Travelogues of the Heart: The Genesis and Development of the Sanskrit Messenger-Poems
Sakti Roy Chowdhury. The Unifying Role of the Songs of Jayadeva's Gitagovinda
Peter Sahota. Mirror of Experience: Some conventions of descriptive imagery in Sanskrit fiction
Hari Dutt Sharma. The Concept of Symbolism and Sanskrit Poetry
David Smith. Descriptions of dance in the Mahakavyas
Lidia Sudyka. Campus and mahakavyas written by women: Varadambikaparinaya-campu, Madhuravijaya, Raghunathabhyudaya, Santanagopalakavya
Bruce Sullivan. Dying on the Stage in Classical Sanskrit Drama
Radhavallabh Tripathi. Rasa Theory Revisited
Section 8 - Scientific Literature
S. Balachandra Rao. A Comparative Study of the Procedures of Three Astronomers of the early 16th century: Copernicus, Nilakantha Somayaji and Gangesa Daivajña
Eugen Ciurtin. Circuit of Aliments and Metabolization of Karma in Sanskrit Ayurvedic Samhita
Vijaya Deshpande. Beliefs, aspirations and accomplishments of the medieval Indian alchemist as depicted in Rasopanisad
Martin Gansten. Nadiya Divination and Indian Astrology
Amrit Gomperts. The Muhurtalaksana: A brief text of Time of Day, Gnomonic Shadow and Divination from Java, compared to the Inscriptions and the Sanskrit
Atmajyotisa Makoto Kitada. The Body of a musician: Embryology and Anatomy in the Indian Classical Musicological Literature
Nand Lal Jain. Botanical Sciences in Early Jain Scriptures
James McHugh. The Art and Science of Perfumery (gandhayukti) in the Nagarasarvasva of Padmasri
B. Rama Rao. Some Unpublished Ayurveda Nighantus from Andhra
K Ramasubramanian. The Notion of Proof in Indian Science
Sreeramula Sarma. Yantraraja at Edinburgh: on a Sanskrit Astrolabe made for Manirama in 1644 AD
Gyula Wojtilla. Ratnasastra in Kautilya's Arthasastra (KA)
Section 9 - Buddhist Studies
Daniel Boucher. Gandhari and the Early Chinese Buddhist Translations: A Reappraisal in Light of New Finds
Alice Collett. Avadanasataka: the fluidity of text and the problem of genre
António Ferreira-Jardim. On the Outer: investigating the relationship between an early Buddhist description of meditative praxis and the early mainstream Brahmanical corpus
Oliver Freiberger. Blind Ascetics or True Ascetics? Early Buddhist Strategies of Dealing with Non-Buddhists
Natalie Gummer. The Dramatics of the Dharma: Rasa in the Suvarna(pra)bhasottamamasutra
Ananda Guruge. Who was Upagupta's Asoka?
Maria Heim. Moral Agency in the Abhidharma: a close look at cetana
Shinichiro Hori. Fragments of the Lalitavistara from Central Asia
Seishi Karashima. Who were the icchantikas?
Toshihiko Kimura. The Upayahrdaya and the Early History of Indian Logic
Ulrich Kragh. Popular Images in 7th century Madhyamaka Commentaries: Candrakirti's appropriation of the Goose-King
Karen Lang. Candrakirti's prescription for treating the three poisons
Yong-hyun Lee. Re-editing the Nispannayogavali: Textual Problems
Mudagamuwe Maithrimurthi. The four brahmaviharas in the Aryavimalakirtinirdesasutra
Daniele Masset. From Taming to drunkenness: images of the elephant in Indo-Tibetan literature
Taiki Motomura. vastu and nimitta in the Yogacarabhumi: in connection with the three-nature theory as found in the Madhyantavibhagabhaya
Ramanath Pandey. The Theory of Nondistinction between the means and the result of cognition
Satya Prakash Sharma. An Analytical Study of Parittas and Paritta Suttas
Safarali Shomakhmadov. Vasubandhu’s “Encyclopedia of Abhidharma” and Buddhist Concept of Royal Power (On a material of some Buddhist Sanskrit and Pàli texts)
Frederick Smith. The Use of Demonologies in the Buddhist Avistacestavidhiparavartah
Section 10 - Jaina Studies
Satya Ranjan Banerjee
Jagat Ram Bhattacharyya. Concept of Brahmacarya in Jainism
John Cort. In Defence of Icons in Three Languages: The Iconophilic Writings of the Seventeenth-century Svetambara Murtipujaka Tapa Gaccha Monk Yasovijaya
Eva De Clercq. Krsna in the Svetambara canon
Paul Dundas. An Early Anti-Paurnamiyaka Polemical Work: Ajitadevasuri's Mohonmulanavadasthanaka
Anna Aurelia Esposito. Life before life before life: an exceptional perspective on Jina Usabha's biography
Peter Flügel. The Sammet Sikhara Case
Sin Fujinaga. On Nigoya
Olle Qvarnström. Early Jain and Buddhist Critique of Samkhya Philosophy
Jayandra Soni. Upayoga, according to Kundakunda, Umasvati and Vidyanandin
Kristi Wiley. The Significance of Adhyavasaya
Section 11 - Philosophy (including panels on Sastrarambha and New Directions in the Study of Yoga)
Akihiko Akamatsu. Perspectivism and its background in Indian Philosophy: Bharthari and Mallavadin
Piotr Balcerowicz. Some Remarks on the Opening Sections in Buddhist and Jaina Epistemological Treatises
Johannes Bronkhorst. The Carvakas and the Vedic tradition
Mikel Burley. The Relevance of Samkhya Metaphysics to Yoga Meditation
Jenni Cover. Bodehasara by Narahari: a previously untranslated Sanskrit text: a contribution to the emerging picture of eighteenth-century India
M. Delhey. Bauddha-Sastra
Evgeniya Desnitskaya. Grammar vs. Ontology in Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya
Vimia Devi. The Relevance of Patanjali Yoga in Modern World
Bogdan Diaconescu. Udayana on God and the Veda
Koji Ezaki. Jnanasrimitra, Udayana and Sri Harsa
Edeltraud Harzer. On the Sources of Non-Propositional and Propositional Perception
Jan Houben. Mallavadin and the Grammarians
Knut Jacobsen. What Similes in Samkhya
Do Ram Nath Jha. The Theory of Meaning in Yoga Philosophy
Sung Yong Kang. Text Transmission of Nyayabhasya and its Relevance to History of Early Nyaya
Yohei Kawajiri. The Pratyabhijna school's criticism of the Sautrantika
Kesiraju V. V. Rao. Significance of the Verse 'karmany evadhikaras te' in the Bhagavadgita in Achieving Global Peace
Hisayasu Kobayashi. The Proof of the self-luminous Nature of a Cognition
Shashiprabha Kumar. Nihshreyasa in vyomavati
Oliver Lamers. Modification of ritual details (uha) in the Prabhakara-School of Purvamimamsa as depicted in the Dipasikha of Salikanatha Misra
Victoria Lysenko. The Structure of the Perceptive Act: Dignaga, Prasastapada and Grammarians
Philipp Maas. Opening the Patanjalayogasastra and its premodern commentaries
Niradbaran Mandal. The role of Yoga in various systems of Indian Philosophy
Shuchita Mehta. Practical approach of the ethical principles of Upanisads
Christopher Minkowski. Why should we read the Mangala-verses?
Andrew Nicholson. Vijnanabhiksu on the Concordance of Yoga and Vedanta
Monika Nowakowska. Artha and anartha in Mimamsa
Trichur Rukmani. The problematic of Samadhi in Sadananda's Vedantasutras
Stuart Sarbacker. Patanjala Yoga and/as Cosmology
Rajendra Nath Sarma. The Mimamsa Concept of Akanksa as the Basis of Syntactic Unity
Marcus Schmücker. Sastrarambhanupapattiprasanga in Venkatanatha's Satadusani
Olga Serbaeva. Yoga from the Yogini's Point of View
Anna-Pya Sjödin. Tarka in Vallabha's Nyayalilavati and the Nyaya-vaisesika tradition: general problems and concerns
Walter Slaje. 'In the Guise of Poetry' - Kalhana Reconsidered
Jacqueline Suthren Hirst. Who were the tarkikas?
Fernando Tola and Carmen Dragonetti. The genesis of the universals in Prasastapada and the genesis of the principia prima in Aristotle
Gary Tubb. Philosophical Beginnings in Sanskrit Treatises on Poetics
Toshiya Unebe. Bhartrhari's remark and related discussions in Nyaya and Buddhist treatises
Toshihiro Wada. A Rule of Substitution in Navya-nyaya: x-vat-tva and x
Alexander Watson. Jayanta Bhatta on the question of whether the self can be perceived
Ian Whicher. Kaivalya in the Yoga Sutra
Nataliya Yanchevskaya. Concept of Time in Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya
Section 12 - History, Epigraphy and the Arts
Daud Ali. A fragmentary Gahadavahala prasasti at Gangaikondacolapuram
Hans T. Bakker. Thanesar, early Pasupata and the Skandapurana
Stefan Baums. An inscribed Buddhist plaque from Merv
Whitney Cox. Another look at Naralokavira's Cidambaram prasasti
Partha Pratim Das. Naga Habitation in Bengal: Epigraphic Evidences
Sadananda Das. Saudhikagama on Town Planning
Oskar von Hinüber. The Cultural Context of the Inscriptions from the Upper Indus
S.R. Leela. Foreign Trade in Ancient India as reflected in the Arthasastra of Kautilya
Vincent Lefèvre. Portraits in the Silpasastra and Related Texts
Isabella Nardi. Evaluating Indian art: suggesting a Sastric analysis of the image of Sri Nathji in Nathdvara miniature painting
Jason Neelis. Onomastic Patterns in Indian Buddhist Inscriptions
Saveros Pou. Satya, sapatha and saksi in Cambodia's tradition
Chandra Shekar Purohit. The rajaprasasti inscription at Raj Samand near Udaipur
Saraju Rath. Numerals in Grantha Manuscripts
Richard Salomon. Radiocarbon Dating of Gandharan Manuscripts: Results of New Tests
Annette Schmiedchen. Religious Patronage and Poltical Power: The Ambivalent Character of Royal Donations in Epigraphy
Bharati Shelat. The Sanskrit Inscriptions of the Reservoirs of Gujarat
Ingo Strauch. Indian Traders on the Island of Socotra (Yemen): new materials from the 2006 expedition
Michael Willis. Hero-stones from Terahi: inscriptions and the iconography of death
Section 13 - Law and Society
Madan Mohan Agrawal. Custom as legal evidence
Mikael Aktor. The 'Grammar of Defilement' Revisited: Comparing Rules of prayascitta with Rules of asauca
Torkel Brekke. The Motivation of Asvatthaman: Ethics of War in the Sauptikaparvan of the Mahabharata
Donald Davis. Maxims and Precedent in Classical Hindu Law
Domenico Francavilla. Through Words and Practices: smrti, sadacara, and the Transmissions of the Knowledge of dharma
Mari Jyväsjärvi. Parivrajikas and Pravrajitas: Mapping the Semantic Categories of Ascetic Women
Ethan Kroll. Early Modern Contributions to the Sanskrit Philosophy of Property
Timothy Lubin. Priestly and Royal Authority in Hindu Law
Werner Menski. On Vyavahara
Patrick Olivelle. Images and Texts: The Visnu-Smrti and Kashmiri Art
Sofarali Shomakhmadov. Duties of a King in Brahmanical religio-legal tradition
Federico Squarcini. Punishing in Public: imposing moral self-dominance in juridical Sanskrit sources
Section 14 - Culture and Tradition (including panels on International Digital Sanskrit Library Integration, pedagogical issues in teaching Sanskrit, Russian scholars on the structure of a canonical text, and Sanskrit and computing)
Natalia Aleksandrova. Writings of Chinese Pilgrims and the Indian Textual Tradition
John Casey. The Use of Sanskrit in Modern Yoga
Christopher Key Chapple. Sanskrit for Adult Learners
Maxim Fomin. Buddhist Canonical Texts on Ideal Kingship: Morality and Righteousness
Jost Gippert. Towards an online retrieval system for the Vedic language
Minoru Hara. Hindu Concept of Sleep, nidra and svapna
Gérard Huet Parsing. Sanskrit by Computer
Malcolm Hyman. A Computational Approach to Sanskrit Morphology and Phonology
Mahmoud Jaafari-Dehaghi. Translations of the Sanskrit text of 'Suka Saptati' into Persian
Warwick Jessup. Teaching Sanskrit as part of a school curriculum
Birgit Kellner. The Indian Logic Knowledge Base (ILKB) - an interim project report
Dermot Killingley. Texts for Beginners
Suryaprakash Kompalli. Design of a stochastic framework for font-independent Devanagari OCR
Samniang Leurmsai. Metaphysics and Ethics as seen in the Bhagavadgita and Buddhacarita
Amarjiva Lochan. Champa and Vietnam: Sanskrit Inscriptions Calling
Sombat Mangmeesukhsiri. Obsolete or Essential? A Case study of Sanskrit Studies in Thailand
Òscar Pujol. A new Sanskrit dictionary: The Sanskrit-Catalan Dictionary
Shuk Dev Sharma. Narahari: the Commentator of Naisadhiyacaritam of Sriharsa
McComas Taylor. Truth and Power in Sanskrit literature: A study of discourse in the Pañcatantra
Gerd Unruh. Some results of the EU-India project: Development of an Intelligent Cognitive System for Sanskrit based on Indian Logic
Victoria Vertogradova. Image and Text in the Culture of Ancient India (Lotus rosette in relievo and verbal text)
Yevgenyi Vyrshchikov. Ambattha and the Buddha: struggle between religious-philosophical teaching in ancient India and the peculiarities of its reflection in the Pali canon
Toru Yagi. On the Kiratarjuniya 2.45: Yapayati Reconsidered
Ousaka Yumi. A new Meter Analysis in Middle Indo-Aryan on the Basis of Neuro Network Assisted by Discriminant Analysis
Yuriy Zavhorodniy. The Study of Indian Philosophy in Ukraine
Natalia Zheleznova. The Schisms in Buddhist History: a fresh approach
Dar Zhutayev. Concerning the Structure of the Early Buddhist Doctrinal Text (Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, Pali)
organised by Professor V. Kutumba Sastry and including:
Ram Murti Sharma. Bharatiya darsane aksara svarupam
Radhavallabh Tripath (presiding)
Ram Karan Sharma
Abhiraj Rajendra Mishra
ShreeBhashyam Vijay Sarath
Shatavadhani R Ganesh
Shri Jagannatha Pathak
Janardan Prasad Pandey 'Mani'
Participants attending without presenting a paper
Elizabeth De Michelis
Asha Rani Tripathi
Report given by Dr S.Shomakhmadov
Safarali Shomakhmadov (St. Petersburg Branch of Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia). Vasubandhu’s “Encyclopedia of Abhidharma” and Buddhist Concept of Royal Power (On a material of some Buddhist Sanskrit and Pàli texts)
The Buddhist Concept of Royal Power was originated on the basis of archaic ideas about connection of religious and royal functions in a figure of the leader of a social community, and after passing of stages religious-ideological narrative and initial logical systematization this concept found the completed form as a philosophical reflection about a picture of the world and about a role of the political leader in distribution and reproduction of Buddhist normative regulation of human activity. In the socio-political aspect this concept presents the South Asian variant of the doctrine about charismatic domination, and it is focused on a refutation of the right of Brahmanic priests on legitimation of sovereigns.
The Buddhist Concept of Royal Power in the completed form is contained in treatise of Vasubandhu “Encyclopedia of Abhidharma” (Abhidharmakosha) (IV – V AD). This text is the fundamental source of Buddhist philosophical idea, containing result of previous development of all set of socio-political ideas of Ancient India. The Sanskrit original of Vasubandhu’s “Encyclopedia of Abhidharma” long time was considered lost, but it was found in Tibetan monastery Ngor in 1935. Vasubandhu submitted the Buddhist Concept of Royal Power in the third section of the treatise - Loka-nirdesha (“The Teaching about the world”). In this text the typology of Universal Monarchs (chakravartins) is submitted, criteria of the legitimate introduction of the applicant for universal domination in the status of chakavartin and finding of chakra (a symbol of universal power) as attribute of charismatic domination are formulated.
According Vasubandhu's “Encyclopedia of Abhidharma” appearance of chakravartin precedes appearance of Buddha: the Universal Monarch creates the empire for the sermon of ten good acts.
In the Concept of the Universal Monarch Vasubandhu adheres to canonical ideas about similarity of chakravartin and Buddha. Both, Buddha and chakravartin, possesses attributes of the Great Person (Mahapurusha), but Buddha is higher than chakravartin because he turns the Wheel of the Buddhist Teaching. It is marked, that Buddha's treasure of chakra is the Noble Eightfold Path called “Wheel of Dharma” (dharmachakra), about it is spoken in the sixth volume of “Encyclopedia of Abhidharma” – Aryapudgalamarga ("The Doctrine about the Way of the Noble Person").
About chakravartins Vasubandhu formulated a position synthesizing Buddhist Canonical ideas. The Universal Monarch has various degrees of Power which correspond to Gold, Silver, Bronze or Iron chakras. Possession of these chakras corresponds to Power over four, three, two or only one continents accordingly.
Then criteria of finding by king of the status of chakravartin are considered. It is emphasized, that these criteria were summarized by Vasubandhu according texts of Buddhist Canon. So, the applicant for the status of chakravartin can be legitimate sovereign only, he must be a kshatriya from clan of Universal Monarchs. Time appropriate for finding of chakra is the fifteenth day of lunar month, Uposhadha. King, the applicant for the status of chakravartin, should observe Vinaya, the Buddhist disciplinary code. A unique place appropriate for finding of chakra is the royal palace. The applicant, staying in the residence, correlate with god Shakra (Buddhist analogue of Indra), whose palace settled down in the centre of the world, at top of mountain Meru. Presence of experts is necessary at the certificate of finding of chakra. There are worthy ministers of sovereign that is those who should become a “staff” of the new Universal Monarch, the Buddhist charismatic leader.
Chakra itself should satisfy six attributes of visual-sign conformity. It looks like a wheel with thousand spokes, with a nave and a rim. On appearance of chakra observers are convinced of its perfection in every respect. Looking on chakra delivers the aesthetic pleasure expressed by an epithet “fine”. Chakra is not human-made object, it is “divine”.
Then Vasubandhu adduces the position about exception of synchronous appearance of two chakravartins. And ways of finding of universal domination are analyzed. The authority of chakravartin, holder of gold chakra, is established over four continents due to that small sovereigns initiatively express readiness to accept his domination over their lands. Silver chakravartin finds authority over three continents, personally coming in those lands which wish to attach to the empire, and their kings modestly obey him. The owner of bronze chakra comes to small kings of two continents and arranges the indicative battles similar to sports meets with predetermined victorious outcome. And only iron chakravartin, establishing the domination over one continent, clanks by weapon, threatening to apply surpassing military force.
The establishment of domination of any of four chakravartins gets value of the missionary action as the Universal Monarch preaches all living beings for ten good ways of activity in the won territories.
But this Buddhist concept of Royal Power formulated in the Buddhist post canonical period is based on ancient Vedic tradition and on texts of a Buddhist canon.
In hymns of Rigveda the Royal Power was interpreted as the special substance (kshatra) having a divine origin, and priesthood was interpreted as the cumulative keeper of this substance.
In the text of Mahabharata and in the text of Katyayana's Shrautasutra the Royal Power was considered as domination over the universe – space and time which cosmic completeness symbolically was affirmed in ritual complexes ashvamedha (sacrifice of a horse) and rajasuya (imperial inauguration). By virtue of it king (as donor) was endowed with the status of the Universal Monarch – chakravartin, that is king «Who, rotates a wheel».
The sphere of ideas about Royal Power included also the sevenfold state structure including, except for sovereign, also minister, people, a fortress (a multifunctional imperial residence), treasury, an army, allies (kings of allied-vassal territories).
The representative of aristocratic military (kshatriyan) clan admitted as the legitimate applicant for a throne, the lineal descendant of king – chakravartin. But the act of finding of the Supreme authority could be carried out by him only at will of Brahmins. Also king could be a representative of Brahmins class.
According to Kautilya's Arthashastra and Dharmashastra of Narada, the duty of imperial service (dharma of noble king) consists in maintenance of safe existence of citizens, that is in maintenance of socio-political way which promotes strict reproduction to Vedic religious-ideological tradition.
Functions of king were classified on three directions – political, judicial and military. Standards of ideal sovereign were developed by brahmanic theorists and included the list of excellent personal qualities and traditional virtues (validity, kindness, bravery, scholarship). Brahmins acted as preceptors and teachers of a king in study of basics of Sacred Vedic Canon, study of the schedule of ritual practices and science of ruling (dandaniti). This science was interpreted as a «teaching about punishment», that is to say teaching about discipline established by means of a rod (sanskr. “danda” – “stick”).
The great attention in preparation of sovereign was devoted to practice of finding of “full self-control” – restraining of excitements. This practice draws a king together with yogin (the religious ascet) and is considered as necessary by a condition in achievement of the perfect domination over citizens.
The statement of a king in the status of chakravartin meant a symbolical conquest of the universe – the act of an establishment of domination over space and time and unction of the applicant for the Supreme power by sacred waters (a ceremony abhisheka), carried out by priest.
Such structure of political problematic (ideas about royal power), formed in prebuddhist period, had great influence on formation of Buddhist doctrine about chakravartin. But substantial aspects of this problematic received new interpretation already at a stage of fixation of the first part of Buddhist canon (Tripitaka) – Sutra-pitaka.
Sutras of the first part of Tripitaka, narrating about Universal Monarchs, are classified by us in three groups for definition of substantial specificity of Buddhist ideas about Royal Power. In first of them we included the texts revealing the reasons of loss “glories and greatness” of sovereign that indicate a nature of chakravartin's power. According to these texts, the authority of the Universal Monarch is a derivative from the restraining of excitements achieved in the last lifes. And wonderful birth of the chakravartin-king appearing on light not from mother but from the certain part of a body of the father testifies to it.
The second group of texts consists of narratives about fundamental imperfection of any human activity, including activity of chakravartin because it is realized in sansara – the world of suffering which by definition can not be perfect. The religious-ideological dominant of these texts consists in the statement of the thesis about inability of sovereigns to provide reproduction of good traditions without means of Buddhist ideologists as only tradition of Buddha can not be stopped.
Into third group of texts are incorporated sutras, indicating on signs and attributes of chakravartin. The analysis of these sutras has shown, that already at a stage of fixation of the first part of the Buddhist Canon the image of the Universal Monarch mediately associated with Buddha through introduction of idea about Great Person (Mahapurusha). The Great Person is the individual who possesses from birth thirty two special attributes and can choose one of two ways of realization of the charismatic applicability: secular or religious. In the first case he becomes the Universal Monarch, and in the second – the religious leader of universal scale, that is Buddha.
Attributes of chakravartin – a wheel (chakra), the elephant, a horse, the jewelry, the wife, the treasurer and the minister/military leader are treated as «seven treasures» and testify that their owner is the Universal Monarch. Receipt of chakra, spontaneously coming to sovereign, defines him as chakravartin.
Reconstruction of Buddhist ritual of the imperial inauguration based on the analysis of texts of the first part of Buddhist canon, has allowed to establish that ritual of imperial inauguration was performed in accordance with a Buddhist sacral calendar. And this ritual comprised derivatives of Vedic inaugural ceremonialism – the rethought acts of symbolical conquest of the universe and unction (abhisheka). In Buddhist imperial inauguration priesthood didn’t play any role, military character of ritual lost the expressiveness, and unction was accomplished for chakra by king himself.
Initial conceptualization of Buddhist ideas about Royal Power has taken place at a stage of fixation of the third part of the Buddhist Canon - Abhidharma-pitaka that is to say during creation of canonical treatises. It has found the expression in development of typology of Universal Monarchs differentiating depending on extensiveness of subject territories and ways of an establishment of domination; in formation of lines of genealogical continuity of the status of chakravartin, beginning from mythological characters of sutras and finishing to real historical personnels; in religious-ideological reinterpretation of Vedic personages as ancestors of clans of Buddhist chakravartins; in an establishment of new domain of definitions of traditional old Indian political terminology (kshatriya, raja, Mahasammata).
Substantially all these directions of conceptualization of Buddhist ideas about Royal Power had the one purpose – full elimination of Brahmins from all spheres of socio-political life of a society.
Final fixation of the Buddhist concept of Royal Power was finished during early Middle Ages. In the completed form this concept appeared in the postcanonical treatise “Encyclopedia of Abhidharma” by Vasubandhu (IV - V AC). Vasubandhu accentuated charismatic features of the Universal Monarch, giving an account of the doctrine about finding of chakra (symbol of authority over chakravala that is all world). The author of “Encyclopedia of Abhidharma” summarizes positions of Sutra-pitaka, Vinaya and Abhidharma, formulating criteria of definition of the Universal Monarch as the charismatic political leader not requiring priestly forms for legitimation of his authority. Vasubandhu emphasizes that chakravartin always is born in famous Shakya's clan in which Buddha Shakyamuni was born, and the purpose of their board – sermon to citizens for ten good ways of activity.